Table 2: Bowman’s strategy clock Based on the Bowman’s strategy clock above, we identify strategies been used in her albums through the years below;
Lucky Star 1982 Trashy pop - lace tops, skirts over capri pants, fishnet stockings, jewelry bearing the Christian cross, and bleached hair. - Young wannabe girls, dovetailing from fading disco to emerging ‘club scene’influential among young girls and women 1. ‘No frills’ – combines a low price, low perceived product/service benefits and a focus on a price- sensitive market price Like a Virgin- Like a Prayer(first number one album on the U.S. albums chart) 1984 Originally a Marilyn glamour image, then became a saint and sinner She performed the song at the first MTV Video Music Awards - trademark "Boy Toy" belt and crucifix jewelry More grown-up rebellious fan base, more critical female audience and male worshippers -
featured role in “Desperately Seeking Susan” - embarked on her first concert tour in the U.S. in 1985 titled The Virgin Tour, with the Beastie Boys. 2. Low price – risk of price war and low margins; need to be cost leader Vogue Erotica Bedtime Stories (eighth U.S. number-one single -Academy Award-winning song) 199019921994 Erotic porn star, sadomasochistic, sexual control, more minelli in Cabaret than Monroe signed an endorsement deal with soft drink manufacturer Pepsi debuted her new song, "Like a Prayer", in a Pepsi commercial and also made a music video for it. Peculiar mix of target audiences: gay club scene, 1990s’ women taking control of their own lives, also pure male titillation -Madonna's first publication Sex, a book consisting of sexually provocative and explicit images - caused media controversy but sold 500,000 copies in the U.S. 3. Hybrid – seeks simultaneously to achieve differentiation and a price lower than that of competitors Something to Remember Evita (won an Academy Award and a Golden Globe for Best Original Song From a Motion Picture also won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Musical or Comedy) 1995 Softer image, ballads preparing for glamour image of Evita film role Broadest audience target, picking up potential film audiences as well as regular fan base - designed to appeal to the mature audience that would be the target of Evita. Most conventional image. Max Factor
later used this mixture of Marilyn and Eva Peron to market its glamour image 4. Differentiation – seek to provide products or services that offer benefits that are different from those of competitors and that are widely valued by buyers. Ray of Light - (U.S. top 5 singles - won three Grammy Awards - won a Grammy for "Best Short Form Music Video.") 1998 Earth mother, Eastern mysticism, dances music fusion – album influenced by electronica, techno, and trip-hop, thereby updating her classic dance-pop sound for the late '90s. ("Most adventurous record.") Clubbing generation of the 1990s, new cohort of fans plus original fan base of now 30somethings desperately staying trendy - used by Microsoft in its advertising campaign to introduce Windows XP. 5. Focus differentiation - strategy seeks to provide high perceived product/service benefits justifying a substantial price, usually to a selected market segment (niche) Music 2000 Acid rock, tongue in cheek Miss USA/cow girl, cool Britannia - having a video which depicts murders by car, was banned by MTV and VH1. Managing to hit the changing club scene and 30-something Brits - starred in the film Swept Away a commercial and critical failure and released straight-to-video in the UK. 6. Increased price/standard value – higher margins if competitors do not follow; risk of losing market share American Life 2003 Militaristic image Che Guevara
Anti-consumerism of American dream - Madonna kissed the heirs to her throne, Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera — and then...