Madeleine Leininger’s Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory
Madeleine Leininger, born in Sutton, Nebraska, received her diploma in nursing in 1948 from St. Anthony’s School of Nursing in Denver Colorado. She then went on and continued her education and received a B.S. and an M.S. in psychiatric and mental health nursing in 1954. After she continued even further, she was given a Ph.D. in cultural and social anthropology in 1965 from the University of Washington, Seattle. Early on in her career she recognized and focused on the importance of caring and made it her central component in nursing. While working in a child guided home, Leinginer realized that recurrent behavioral patterns in children seem to have a cultural foundation. She recognized that the lack of cultural care knowledge of a nurses causes deficiency of support compliance, healing and wellness. Trancultural nursing is defined as providing culture-specific and universal nursing care practices in promoting health or well-being or to help people to face unfavorable human conditions, illness, or death in a culturally meaningful way (Sitzman, K. & Eichelberger, 2011, p. 101).
Concepts Central to the Discipline of Nursing
There are four basic concepts to the discipline of nursing: person, environment, health and nursing. These concepts form the basis of the way a nurse should interact and provide treatment for his or her patients.
During an individual’s life span, each person develops a personal system of values that give meaning and purpose to life. Madeleine Leininger represents this in her theory by explaining that when providing care, a harmony of the individual or groups cultural beliefs, practices, and values must be integrated (Sitzman, K. & Eichelberger, 2011, p. 102). Chaminade University recognizes that a person possesses physiological, psychological, socio-cultural, developmental and spiritual needs and that as a nurse we must provide care to meet these needs. Similar to Chaminade’s School of Nursing concepts, Leininger’s theory says that cultural and social structure dimensions include factors related to religion, social structure, political/legal concerns, economics and ethnohistory, influencing cultural responsesof humans within a cultural context. Leininger also believes in the total picture, a holistic and comprehensive approach, which led to a more extensive nursing practice. Although culture care concepts have similarities and differences among cultures around the world, Leininger ‘s theory illustrates that every human culture has a folk remedies professional knowledge, and profession care practices that vary (Sitzman, K. & Eichelberger, 2011, p. 104). A nurse must address each patient differently and consciously to provide holistic and culturally congruent care. Thus, the mind, body, and spirit are inseparable and should be looked at in a holistic way.
Environment influences the health of individuals, families, groups, and communities. Biological, psychological, social, and political factors and conditions are the causes that affect the life and development of a person. Similar, Leininger’s culture aspect of her theory refers to the learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and lifeways of a specific individual or group that guide their thinking, decisions, actions, and patterned ways of living. She specifies the importance that a nurse provide care where the cultural beliefs, practices and values are congruently harmonious to assisting others with needs to improve the human condition or to face death. She beliefs that failure to provide care that is closely tied to a patients culture could end in the patient showing signs of stress, cultural conflict, noncompliance, and ethically moral concerns (Sitzman, K. & Eichelberger, 2011, p. 103). Individuals that are exposed to a personal and comfortable...