Consists of CnH2xOx
• Include sugars
• Classified into groups based on the number of carbon atoms per molecule. • Classes of Carbohydrates
▪ Simple sugars
▪ Compound sugars
▪ Complex sugars
• Simple sugars
• Contain about 3 to 6 carbon atoms per molecule
▪ The three carbon simple sugars
▪ The five carbon simple sugars
▪ Examples are – Ribose and Deoxyribose o Hexoses
▪ The six carbon simple sugars
▪ Chemical formula for hexoses is C6H12O6 ▪ The most abundant sugars in nature. They comprise both disaccharides and polysaccharides. ▪ Examples are Glucose, Galactose and Fructose. o
• Chemicals that share the same chemical formula but different structures (mirror images) •
• Glucose “the blood sugar”
• The primary source of energy in all living things
• Fructose “fruit sugar”
A chemical reaction in which a substance is rearranged to form another substance.
Is a chemical reaction by which a large substance is broken down into smaller units through the addition of water.
Is a chemical reaction by which a large substance is manufactured from subunits with the release of water.
A simple sugar + a simple sugar will undergo dehydration synthesis to form a compound sugar plus water Each disaccharide is a product of dehydration synthesis including two hexoses. • Glucose + Glucose dehydration synthesis Maltose + water • Glucose + Galactose dehydration synthesis Lactose + water • Glucose + Fructose Dehydration synthesis Sucrose + Water
Electromagnetic force that joins hexoses together on a chain. Examples: Alpha and Beta glycosidic bonds.
Sugars end in “ose”
Enzymes end in “ase”
A condition that results from inability to produce Lactase, the enzyme needed for the digestion of lactose.
An immune reaction to one of the animal proteins in milk.
• A polysaccharide is polymer in which glucose units are the monomers. • A polymer is a chain of repeating units
• The repeating units of a chain are monomers
Examples of polysaccharides
• i. Starch “plant starch”
o form of glucose in plants
• ii. Glycogen “Animal starch”
o Storage form of glucose in animals
o Stored in the muscle and liver
• iii. Cellulose
• A polysaccharide that constitutes the cell wall of plants. It is a major component of dietary fibers. • The glucose molecules in cellulose, are held together by beta glycosidic bonds.
Advantages of dietary fibers
• Serves as buffers
• Function as roughage in the digestive tract
• Help reduce blood cholesterol
• Prevent diverticulosis
• Help prevent colon cancer
• Help prevent hemorrhoids
• Regulates bowel movement
A polysaccharide that constitutes the cell wall of fungi, as well as forming the exoskeleton of insects and crustacean.
A polysaccharide that constitutes the cell wall of bacteria
It is composed of an altering sequence of two glucoselike units, NAG (N-Acetyl glucosamine) and NAM (N-Acetyl Muramine), impregnated by several amino acid bridges. -unlike the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, gram-negative bacterial cell wall is covered by a thick layer of lipids that resists penetration by penicillin.