Millennium Development Goals
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve these goals by the year 2015. The goals are: 1. eradicating extreme poverty and hunger,
2. achieving universal primary education,
3. promoting gender equality and empowering women
4. reducing child mortality rates,
5. improving maternal health,
6. combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases,
7. ensuring environmental sustainability, and
8. Developing a global partnership for development.
Debate has surrounded adoption of the MDGs, focusing on lack of analysis and justification behind the chosen objectives, the difficulty or lack of measurements for some of the goals, and uneven progress towards reaching the goals, among other criticisms. Although developed countries' aid for achieving the MDGs has been rising over recent years, more than half the aid is towards debt relief owed by poor countries, with remaining aid money going towards natural disaster relief and military aid which does not further development. Progress towards reaching the goals has been uneven. Some countries have achieved many of the goals, while others are not on track to realize any. A UN conference in September 2010 reviewed progress to date and concluded with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date. There were also new commitments on women's and children's health, and new initiatives in the worldwide battle against poverty, hunger and disease. Government organizations assist in achieving those goals, among them are the United Nations Millennium Campaign, the Millennium Promise Alliance, Inc., the Global Poverty Project, the Micah Challenge, The Youth in Action EU Program "Cartoons in Action" video project and the 8 Visions of Hope global art project.
Goals and Targets
The MDGs were developed out of the eight chapters of the Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000. There are eight goals with 21 targets, and a series of measurable indicators for each target. * Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
* Target 1A: Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day * Proportion of population below $1 per day (PPP values) * Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty]
* Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
* Target 1B: Achieve Decent Employment for Women, Men, and Young People * GDP Growth per Employed Person
* Employment Rate
* Proportion of employed population below $1 per day (PPP values) * Proportion of family-based workers in employed population * Target 1C: Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger * Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age * Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
* Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
* Target 2A: By 2015, all children can complete a full course of primary schooling, girls and boys * Enrollment in primary education
* Completion of primary education
* everyone will get into school
* Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
* Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015 * Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education * Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector * Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament * For girls in some regions, education remains elusive * Poverty is a major barrier to education, especially among older girls * In every...
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