Macro Skills

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What makes listening difficult? 
•Clustering
•Redundancy
•Reduced forms
•Performance variables
•Colloquial language
•Rate of delivery
•Stress, rhythm, and intonations
•Interaction

Process of Listening
•Recognize speech sounds and hold a temporary ‘imprint’ of them in short-term memory •Simultaneously determine the type of speech event
•Use ‘bottom-up’ linguistic decoding skills and/or (top-down) background schemata to bring a plausible interpretation to the message, and assign in a literal and intended meaning to the utterance.

Each of these stages represents a potential assessment objective •Comprehending of surface structure elements
•Understanding of pragmatic context
•Determining meaning of auditory input
•Developing the gist, a global or comprehensive understanding

Types of Listening Types of listening
1. Intensive-Listening for perception of the components of a larger stretch of language 2. Responsive -Listening to a relatively short stretch of language in order to make an equally short response. 3. Selective-Processing stretches of discourse such as monologues for several minutes in order to ‘scan’ for certain information-be able to comprehend designated information in a context of longer stretches of spoken language. 4. Extensive-listening to develop a top-down, global understanding do spoken language-ranges from listening to lengthy lectures to listening to a conversation and deriving a comprehensive message or purpose-listening for the gist, for the main idea, and making inferences. Designing Assessment Tasks

1. Intensive listening
a. Recognizing Phonological and Morphological Elements
b. Paraphrase Recognition

a. Recognizing Phonological and Morphological Elements
Phonemic pair, consonants
Test-takers hear: He’s from California.
 Test-takers read: (a) He’s from California.
(b) She’s from California.

 Phonemic pair, vowels
Test-takers hear: Is he living?
Test-takers read: (a) Is he leaving?
(b) Is he living?...
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