Macedonia Country Study

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Rabindra Bhandari
Alen Degirmendzic

Abstract

’’Economic development is the acknowledged answer to absolute poverty and other issues that are related to the well being of one nation. But, what is development, and in what ways do we recognize it when it is performed? The term, development, has been used in numerous ways. Conventionally, it was associated with economic growth of per capita income. Since the 1970s, other factors of development have been commonly used by economic scholars and development organizations such as the World Bank. The accomplishment to fulfill basic needs or-- decrease in absolute poverty, the foundation of modern employment opportunity, and the accomplishment of a less unequal distribution of income and farmland-- have all become significant factors in evaluating the level of development with the work of a well functioning Government. Traditional measures of growth, especially in developing countries in the Balkans, may be misleading in that they fail to account for the destruction of war that often accompanies spurts in temporary and unsustainable economic growth.’’

Significant Barriers to Sustainable Economic Development in Macedonia

Introduction

Macedonia is a diminutive high land, country isolated state neighboring Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo and Serbia. The majority of its population lives in the capital Skopje, a city that is located on the Vardar River that merge Communist-era architecture with an Ottoman-era Old Town and overflowing with evidence of its 2,500-year history under Greek, Byzantine, Ottoman and Yugoslav rule. Macedonia gained independence from the former Yugoslav federation with irresistible majority support in a referendum on September 8, 1991. The citizens refer to their own country as Republic of Macedonia however both the United Nations and the European Union call it the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia).The main concern and issue regarding the name of the state is that there is a province in Greece that is also called Macedonia. Official acknowledgment of Macedonia’s autonomy was postponed by Greek opposition to the name. After few years of political fighting Greece sooner or later agreed to recognize the “Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia’s a state with political and geographical border lines. The inhabitants of Macedonia do not affirm to the name given to them by the International Community and there will be further negotiations to be held in the framework of the United Nations to come to a final settlement of disputes. In 1994, the country faced rebellion by the minority of Albanians who account for a third of the residents, asking for equal rights, erupting in years of violence. Serenity finaly returned later after 4 years with a peacekeeping intervention by NATO and UN Peace troops and a new constitution identifying Albanian as an official language and growing access for Albanians to participate in the public sector employment, incorporating them in parliament. Parliamentary democracy was recognized with subsequent elections of November 1990 e. Between June and September 2001 the nation faced a serious political and security disaster that was overtaken by the Ohrid Framework Agreement that further helped the multiethnic character of the country through intensifying the right of ethnic minorities and decreeing its territorial veracity and unitary side. Since then, the achievement of the Agreement has been a foundation part of political stability. The country is part of local and international programs and projects—the South-East European Co-operation Process, the Stability Pact, the Central European Initiative and the South-East Europe Cooperation Initiative. It is a member of the Council of Europe, the OSCE and since April 2003 of the World Trade Organisation. Economy

The fundamental legal structure and the major institutional arrangement in economics, social and environment are present, even though to a small...
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