Maagang Pagbubuntis Ng Mga Kabataan

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s): 22859
  • Published: March 8, 2011
Read full document
Text Preview
TERATOGENS
 – IS ANY FACTOR, CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL, THAT ADVERSELY AFFECTS THE FERTILIZED OVUM, EMBRYO, OR FETUS.                                                                                            EFFECTS OF TERATOGENS ON A FETUS:

1)      depends on the:
a)      strength of the teratogen
 ex. Radiation – in small amount sun rays it causes no damage, but in large amount like in cancer treatment, serious fetal defects or death can occur. b)     timing of teratogen
before implantation = zygote is aborted or is unaffected organogenesis – vulnerable to injury
Last trimester – decreased harm (except syphilis and toxoplasmosis these infections can cause abnormalities in organs that were originally formed normally). c)      teratogens affinity for specific tissue

Lead – attacks and disables nervous tissue.
Thalidomide – limb defect
Tetracycline – tooth enamel deficiencies and possibly long bone deformities. Rubella virus – eyes (blind), ears (deaf), heart and brain.  
TERATOGENIC MATERNAL INFECTIONS
TOXOPLASMOSIS
OTHER INFECTIONS
syphilis
hep B virus
HIV
RUBELLA
CYTOMEGALO VIRUS
HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
 
 
1.) TOXOPLASMOSIS
o   Is a protozoan infection
o   Spread commonly through contact of uncooked meat, although it may also be contracted w/ through handling cat stool in soil or cat litter o   A woman experiences no symptoms of the disease, except a few days of malaise and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy o   The infection crosses the  placenta

o   Infant may new born w/ CNS damage, hydrocephalus, microcephaly, intracerebral calcification, and retinal deformities. o   1:900 pregnancies
o   Dx: serum analysis during pregnancy
o   Mgt:
 Sulfonamides, but fetal anomaly is uncertain, and sulfa may increased bilirubin levels in newborn Pyrimethamine, anantiprotozoal agent may also be used, but this is antifolic acid drug, so it is administered w/ caution in early pregnancy to prevent reducing folic acid levels. spiramycin

2)      RUBELLA (German measles)
o   Rubella virus
o   w/ mild rash and mild systemic illness in the mother
o   fetal damage:
 deafness
 mental and motor challenges
Cataracts
cardiac defects (most commonly patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary stenosis) restricted intrauterine growth /SGA
thrombocytopenic purpura
dental an facial clefts (cleft lip and palate)
o   rubella titer is obtained on the 1st meeting
titer > 1:8 suggest immunity
titer < 1:8 suggests susceptibility
titer that is greatly increased over the previous reading suggests recent infection o   Vaccine can’t be given during pregnancy because It is a live vaccine o   If vaccine is given woman is advised not to get pregnant for 3 months o   Current concern is reinfection

o   Newborn born by women w/ rubella are capable of transmitting the virus, therefore isolate  
3)      CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
o   A member of the herpes virus family
o   w/ few maternal symptoms
o   droplet infection
o   may become latent and then reactivate periodically
recurrence are not thought to have teratogenic effect on the fetus but can cause infection of the newborn during birth from genital secretions or pp from exposure to CMV-infected breast milk Infection contracted at or shortly after birth is not associated w/ serious adverse effects except in babies of very low birth weight. o   crosses placenta

o   newborn:
severely neurologically challenged
hydrocephalus
microcephaly
spasticity
eye damage
optic atrophy
chorioretinitis
deafness
chronic liver disease
blueberry-muffin lesions (petechiae) on skin
dx: isolation of CMV antibodies in blood serum
mgt:
no medication  available
thorough handwashing
avoiding crowds
 
4)      HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (GENITAL HERPES INFECTION)2 The 1st time a woman contracts a genital herpes infection, systemic involvement occurs....
tracking img