Ma. English

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2. Tom jones

The term “socio-economic alliance” for marriage is a broad one. What actually comes into practice in marriage is the conduct-code. Under this code, particularly, the woman loses all identities as a human being- the specific name, the station, the right to decision making, an activist participation in given situations, etc. fielding has observed that the conduct-code of marriage suppresses women’s spontaneity more than that of men-the difference can be seen in the example of squire western and his wife. The latter died early in life largely because she as a wife could see no scope of true relationship with her husband under what came to be called a marriage. However, outside marriage women behave freely to the extent of being aggressive.

First, they do not merely ‘flirt’ but actually seduce men and lead them straight to bed. If squire western is shown as a great hunter in the novel, molly Seagrim has been shown no less as a fighter and marauder. Secondly, the philosopher spotted in molly’s bed by Tom arouses in us a sense of ridicule and disgust, his practice goes against his precept as he sheepishly reveals himself in a state of undress. Not molly, in her case, it is raw sexuality. Though her own mother and sisters as well as the neighborhood do not approve of her ways, fielding is far from critical towards her. Another version of female sexuality-pleasure-giving and natural is presented through Jenny Jones. Tom has also come age by the time he meets her and we notice greater reciprocity between the two. What we scarcely notice, however, is that under fielding scheme, such reciprocity is nit witnessed between partners in marriage. Instead, we see wives running away from husbands and husbands in hot pursuit of them; they have to get back their wives into the marriage-mould. Thus female-sexuality and marriage stand in contrast each other.

Tom’s own sexuality is equally uninhibited and pronounced. But we have to recognize that he shares this trait more with woman conceived outside the family or marriage-mould. His sympathy and kindness towards all women has its source in a magazine or pamphlet which sought to engage the average person in useful conversation. This average person was the middle class city-dweller, the gentleman proper or the gentleman in the making who had an interest in the daily occurrences of life, who did not what to merely put two and two together but to also develop a no-nonsense pragmatic understanding to guide him. Such needs were earlier fulfilled in the case of the lower masses by the village person who interpreted the age-old principles of life and behavior for the benefits of the common person. However, the difference between the need of the new middle class city dweller we have in mind and the common person with whom the person communicated lay in their social-positioning, the former also asking for pleasure while receiving moral guidance. Naturally enough, this new gentleman in-the-making looked elsewhere for this service in the direction of a non-religious, secular agency. Hence the fulfillment of the need by the periodical, an instrument which did away with the compulsion of going to a specific place at an appointment hours and instead provided the service at one’s door step. Of course, for availing oneself of the service, one had to meet the precondition of literacy. This the particular individual could well afford in the given social conditions. In its infancy, the novel incorporated some of the functions and traits of the periodical.

4. Wuthering heights

Heathcliff is often described as a "Byronic hero".

A Byronic hero has specific qualities. He is wild, savage, passionate, handsome, proud, strong and immensely powerful in his emotions. He usually has one consuming passion or goal in life.

Heathcliff certainly fits this description. And of course, his one passion in life is his love, albeit thwarted, for Cathy. He cares for nothing and no one but her, even...
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