Lyme Disease

Topics: Lyme disease, Antibody, ELISA Pages: 2 (605 words) Published: April 1, 2012
Lyme disease
Lyme disease is a relatively new, being first reported in 1975, in Old Lyme , Connecticut. It is caused by the bacterium Borrelia Burgdoferi, which can be carried by rats and dears. The transmitters of the disease are the black-legged ticks that bite these animals, get infected and afterwards bite people. According to, “the average deer carries 200 or more ticks at one time”. Approximately half of these ticks are infected with the Lyme disease bacteria. The risk of contracting the disease is higher for people who have pets and for those who do activities outside, such as hiking or gardening. Lyme disease can be diagnosed in different ways, based on the stage of the disease. In early stages, the presence of a red rash, erythema migrans, after outdoor activities in an area where this disease is common, can be an indicator for the presence of Lyme disease. In later stages, the disease is diagnosed by blood tests. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a laboratory tests use to detect antibodies. The presence of antibodies to the bacterium Borrelia burgdoferi is an indication for the presence of Lyme disease. Another, more precise test is the Western Blot Assay antibody test. Lyme disease symptoms appear in three phases: “1. Early localized disease; 2. Early disseminated disease; 3. Late disease” ( The first signs of Lime disease are the appearance of a red ring around the bite followed by expanding red rashes that are spreading away from the thick bite. These symptoms are accompanied by swollen glands, stiffness in muscles and joints and generalized fatigue. In the second phase, the bacteria attack the heart and nervous system, causing meningitis and also sore throat, headache, abnormal pulse and fever. In the late phase, the inflammation of the heart muscle can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and heart failure. This phase is also characterized by paralysis of the facial muscles and inflammation of the...
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