Technical College High School
Lung cancer is “the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs”. These abnormal cells do not carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. As they grow, “the abnormal cells can form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body via the blood”. There are two major types of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Staging lung cancer is based on whether the cancer is local or has spread from the lungs to the lymph nodes or other organs. Because the lungs are large, tumors can grow in them for a long time before they are found. Even when symptoms—such as coughing and fatigue—do occur, people think they are due to other causes. For this reason, “early-stage lung cancer (stages I and II) is difficult to detect. Most people with lung cancer are diagnosed at stages III and IV. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 85 percent of lung cancers”(Lung Cancer 101.). The most common form is called Adenocarcinoma. Disease history
Hanspeter Witschi, a journalist from ITEH and Department of Molecular Biosciences, said, “a hundred years ago, lung cancer was a reportable disease, and it is now the commonest cause of death from cancer in both men and women in the developed world, and before long, will reach that level in the developing world as well. Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of death in both men and women in the US, with over 158,900 deaths in 1999. Worldwide, lung cancer kills over 1 million people a year. The disease has no particular symptoms or signs for its detection at an early stage. Most patients therefore present with advanced stage IIIB or IV disease” (Witschi, H.). “Screening tests began in the 1950s with annual chest x-ray films and sputum cytology but they resulted in no improvement in overall mortality compared with control subjects. The same question is now being asked of spiral low-dose computed tomographic scanning. There have been big refinements in the staging classification of lung cancer and advances in stage identification using minimally invasive technology. Postsurgical mortality has declined from the early days of the 1950s but 5-year cure rates have only barely improved. The addition of chemotherapy to radical radiotherapy, together with novel radiotherapy techniques, is gradually improving the outcome for locally advanced, inoperable non–small cell lung cancer. In 1912, Adler published a book entitled Primary Malignant Growths of the Lungs and Bronchi, where he reported all cases of lung cancer in the published literature worldwide. He could verify only 374 cases. Smoking was popularized during the First World War. Today, in the United States, the combined annual number of deaths from breast, colon, and prostate cancer would not equal the death toll from lung cancer, and last year more than 150,000 patients died of this disease. It represents the most preventable respiratory disease worldwide and, while its incidence is decreasing in the developed world, an epidemic of untold proportions is unfolding in the developing countries. Advances in imaging, diagnosis, staging, and treatment have come relatively recently, but despite our best efforts, the 5-year survival for this disease remains a dismal 16% in the United States and 5% in the United Kingdom” (Spiro, S. G., & Silvestri, G. A.). Cause
Adenocarcinoma of the lung is a type of lung cancer. It occurs when abnormal lung cells multiply out of control and form a tumor. Eventually, tumor cells can spread to other parts of the body including the lymph nodes around and between the lungs, liver, bones, adrenal glands, and the brain. Compared with other types of lung cancer, Adenocarcinoma is more likely to be contained in one area. If it is truly localized, it may respond to treatment better than...