LUMAD is a Bisayan term meaning "native" or "indigenous". It is adopted by a group of 15 from a more than 18 Mindanao ethnic groups in their Cotabato Congress in June 1986 to distinguish them from the other Mindanaons, Moro or Christian. Its usage was accepted during the Cory Administration when R.A. 6734, the word Lumad was used in Art. XIII sec. 8(2) to distinguish these ethnic communities from the Bangsa Moro. At present, Mindanao Lumads account for 2.1 million out of the total 6.5 million indigenous people nationally. (1993 Census) these fifteen Lumads in the Cotabato Congress were the following:
Subanen, B'laan, Mandaya, Higaonon, Banwaon, Talaandig, Ubo, Manobo, T'boli, Tiruray, Bagobo,Tagakaolo, Dibabawon, Manguangan, and Mansaka. They are found in the following towns and cities:
Cotabato, Tandag, Dipolog, Kidapawan, Marbel, Tagum, Cagayan de Oro, Davao, Malaybalay,Pagadian, Butuan, Surigao, Ozamis, Ipil, Digos, Mati and Dipolog. History
About the 11th century, called the "emergent period" by the anthropologist, F. Landa Jocano, the dynamic interactions between the indigenous cultural elements and that of the migrants brought about the eventual narrowing down into distinct ethnic groups. Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler in 1521, mentioned four Mindanao groups as: Caragan, Mandanaos, Lutaos, Subanus and Dapitans. Apparently, the Caragans were found in the Misamis Oriental, Agusan, Bukidnon area. The Mandanaos in Central Mindanao; Lutaos in Zamboanga del Sur and Basilan; Subanus and Dapitans in Zamboanga del Sur and del Norte; and the Dapitans in Zamboanga del Norte provinces as these are called today. Called " infieles" during the Spanish regime, the subjugation of the Lumads was equally important as that of the Muslims. Thus, Jesuit missions were established near infieles territories. They were found among the Tiruray in Cotabato; among the Subanons in Dapitan; among the Manuvus and Caragans in Misamis and Surigao; and...
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