Ludhiana Stock Exchange

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1. Introduction

(A) Capital Market 9

(B)Stock exchange 13

2. Objectives 19

3. Online Trading 23

4. Research Methodology 57

5. Analysis and Interpretation 59

6. Finding 67

7. Conclusion 69

8. Limitations 70

9. Suggestion 71

10. Bibliography 73

11. Questionnaire 74

Introduction to the capital market

The capital market is the market for securities, where companies and the government can raise long term funds. The capital market includes the stock market and the bond market. Financial regulators ensure that investors are protected against fraud. The capital markets consist of the primary market, where new issues are distributed to investors, and the secondary market, where existing securities are traded.

Capital market thus plays a vital role in channelizing the savings of individuals for Investment in the economic development of the country. As a result the investors are not constrained by their individual abilities, but by the abilities of the companies, which in turn enhance the savings and investments in the country, liquidity of capital market is an important factor affecting growth.

Since projects require long term finance, but on the other hand, the investor may not like to relinquish control over their savings for a long time. A liquid stock market ensures a quick exit without incurring heavy losses or costs. Thus development of efficient market system is necessary for creating conductive climate for investment and economic growth.

Capital market Segment – Primary And Secondary

Broadly , the comprises of two segments – the new issue market which is commonly known as primary market and the stock market which is known as secondary market.


A primary offering, such as with a corporate bond, means you are buying it directly from the issuer, at par value, usually. A secondary market is where you sell or buy existing issues. I.E. If you bought a bond last year, now need to get your principal, you can sell it in the secondary market. You may not get par value. If rates are up since you bought the bond, then you will likely have to sell it at a discount to be able to get rid of it. If rates have fallen since you bought it, you could get a premium for it.


The market where securities are traded after they are initially offered in the primary market. Most trading is done in the secondary market. To explain further, it is trading in previously issued financial instruments. An organized market for used securities. Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), National Stock Exchange NSE, bond markets, over-the-counter markets, residential mortgage loans, governmental guaranteed loans etc Secondary Market refers to a market where securities are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market and/or listed on the Stock Exchange. Majority of the trading is done in the secondary market. Secondary market comprises of equity markets and the debt markets. For the general investor, the secondary market provides an efficient platform for trading of his securities. For the management of the company, Secondary equity markets serve as a monitoring and control conduit—by facilitating value-enhancing control activities, enabling implementation of incentive-based management contracts, and aggregating information (via price discovery) that guides management decisions.

Indian capital market at glance


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