Lsrwt Sub Skills

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Listening sub skills
1. Deducing meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items through understanding word formation and contextual clues in utterances and spoken text 2. Recognizing and understanding phonological features of speech [especially those forms associated with supra-segmental features] 3. Understanding relationships within the sentence: the syntactic and morphological forms characteristic of spoken language 4. Understanding relationships between parts of text and utterances through cohesive devices [especially grammatical cohesive devices such as reference] 5. Understanding relationships between parts of text by recognizing discourse markers [especially for transition and conclusion of ideas, for anticipation of objections or contrary views and for turn-taking] 6. Understanding the communicative function and value of utterances with and without explicit markers [e.g. definition and exemplification] 7. Understanding conceptual meaning in spoken text and utterances [e.g. comparison, degree, cause & effect, result, and audience & purpose] 8. Understanding attitudinal meaning in spoken text and utterances [especially ability to recognise the speaker's attitude towards the listener and the topic by intonation] 9. Identifying the main points or important information in discourse [especially through vocal underlining and verbal cues] 10. Distinguishing main ideas from supporting detail [the whole & its parts, fact & opinion, statement & example, and proposition & argument] 11. Understanding explicitly stated ideas and information

12. Understanding ideas and information in spoken text and utterances which are not explicitly stated [e.g. through making inferences] 13. Interpreting spoken text by going outside information in the text to information not contained in the text [e.g. through picking up exophoric reference] 14. Transferring and transforming information in speech to diagrammatic display [e.g. through completing a diagram, table or chart] 15. Skimming: listening to obtain the gist of spoken text

16. Scanning: listening for specific details in spoken text
17. Note-taking from spoken text
* Extracting salient points to summarize specific idea or topic in text * Selectively extracting relevant key points from text [especially involving coordination of related information and tabulation of information for comparison and contrast] * Reducing text through rejection of redundant or irrelevant items or information [e.g. determiners, repetition, compression of examples, use of abbreviations, and use of symbols denoting relationships between states or processes]

Speaking sub-skills
To complement the posts on speaking, especially regarding curriculum design, I have included a list of speaking sub-skills. 1. Producing segmental features of English at word level [especially vowel and consonant sounds, stressed and unstressed syllables] 2. Using suprasegmental features of English [especially intonation, stress in sentences, word-linking and weak forms] accurately in spoken utterances 3. Expressing grammatical [syntactic and morphological] relationships in spoken utterances at the level of the sentence 4. Expressing relationships between parts of a spoken utterance through cohesive devices [especially grammatical cohesion such as noun-pronoun reference] 5. Using markers in spoken discourse, in particular

* introducing an idea
* developing an idea
* transition to another idea
* concluding an idea
* emphasising a point to indicate important information
* explaining or clarifying a point already made
* anticipating an objection or contrary view
6. Sustaining communicative dialog with and without explicit markers * single exchange
* double exchange
* multiple exchanges
7. Expressing conceptual meaning in spoken utterances
8. Expressing attitudinal meaning in spoken text and utterances [especially by intonation] 9. Marking the main points or important...
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