Children living in poverty have many home and community factors that Contribute to performing below their potential in literacy achievement. This background Knowledge and experience of low-income students begins a literacy “achievement gap” That compares their literacy knowledge to that of children who do not live in poverty. Understanding social class diversity enhances the learning of all students. And Class differences in child-rearing practices may sound alarming or oversimplified. Lower-class children are more likely to have unstable family situations. Their parents typically have low-wage jobs and are more frequently laid off, causing family stress and more arbitrary discipline. This paper explains how language and attitudes of low income families act as barriers to success in education. And what types of programs or interventions are most useful in overcoming those barriers.
The environment where a child develops has influences on language development. Success at school depends very heavily on language for reading, writing, speaking and understanding. The children exposed to extensive vocabulary and complex grammatical structures more quickly develop language and also have a more accurate syntax than children raised in environments without complex grammar exposed to them. Low income household uses informal, simple language, sometimes ungrammatical and with limited explanation and vocabulary which is used between friends or family member. Unlike middle class household who uses formal language, when explanation and details are required and they uses a wider vocabulary They often have had fewer words spoken to them, with shorter utterances. They hear only the most commonly occurring words. By age 5, the child of a parent who is language focused has heard 50,000,000 words spoken as opposed to the child of a parent who is not language focused. That child has only heard10,000,000 words (Hart and Risley, 1995). At the same time, the...
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