Low Birth Weight Babies

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Epidemiological surveillance is the discipline of continuously gathering, analysing, and interpreting data about diseases, and disseminating conclusions of the analyses to relevant organisations. As such, it is a key element in epidemiology. This term may be used in two ways. In broader sense, surveillance has been equated with the routine health information system which gives idea about the total health situation. in narrower sense, it is used to refer to specific information system pertaining to specific disease or any other health related event. Purpose

1. assessing magnitude of problem
2. monitoring implementation of health programs
3. understanding local epidemiology of the problem
4. assessing changes in trend of disease or its distribution 5. identifying specific groups at risk
6. to enable predictions about pattern of occurrence of diseases 7. in assessing the impact of the programme intervention for control of diseases Methods
Passive surveillance: It is the routine reporting of the cases of diseases reaching health care facilities for treatment or service.No special effort is made to find unsuspected disease incidents. Passive surveillance will usually only detect disease in those who get sick, meaning that healthy carriers and long incubation periods combined with passive surveillance can maintain a reservoir of undiscovered disease carrying agents. Active surveillance: In this special search is done for finding cases in the community mainly through door to door surveys. It also includes the purposeful gathering of information from institutions and healthcare providers. Sentinel surveillance: It is a reporting system based on selected institutions or individual that provide regular, complete reports on one or more diseases occurring ideally in a defined attachment. it also provides additional data on cases. Main menu

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Home » 2g - Communicable Disease
Surveillance - national and international - its evaluation and use Communicable Disease Control: Surveillance - National and International - its evaluation and use This section covers:
* Surveillance - national and international - its evaluation and use * Definitions
* Purpose of Surveillance
* Principles of surveillance
* Categories of surveillance
* Sources of surveillance data
* Sources of specific surveillance data
* Other types of data used for surveillance
* Evaluation of a Surveillance System
Definitions
Surveillance is 'the continued watchfulness over the distribution and trends in the incidence of disease through the systematic collection, consolidation and evaluation of morbidity and mortality reports and other relevant data' (Alexander Langmur, founder of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA 1960) Many authorities also include data interpretation, information dissemination, and investigation and control measures in their definition of surveillance. Surveillance is the 'on-going scrutiny, continuous analysis, interpretation and feedback of systematically collected data, generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity and frequently, their rapidity, rather than complete accuracy'. (Last JM. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.) * predominantly descriptive statistics but also includes analytic epidemiology in outbreak investigations * plot data from one or more sources over time to show trends * correlation or inverse correlation suggest direct or inverse association * main building blocks - counts, proportions, rates (and appropriate confidence intervals) Purpose of Surveillance

* Allows individual cases of infection to be identified
* Measures incidence of infectious disease, with changes potentially indicating an outbreak * Tracks changes in...
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