Love Is a Fallacy

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修辞是一门言语表达的艺术。辞格是高级英语教学中的一项重要 内容, 在教学过程中要讲清分类, 及时总结并予以讲评和赏析, 以提 高学生对辞格的判断能力、赏析能力, 为写作、翻译中灵活应用辞格打 下基础。
美国著名的幽默作家Max Shulman (1919- ) 的Love is a Fallacy 一文, 采用对话形式, 文笔轻松、诙谐幽默, 充满讽刺意味。文章除了采 用大量的俚语和俗语以外, 使用了大量的修辞手法, 语言生动、富有戏 剧性, 具有极大的感染性和艺术性。本文以该篇文章为例, 分析了其中 各种修辞技巧, 指出了修辞所具有的语言艺术魅力。 一、明喻(s imile)
明喻是一种最常见的修辞方法, 就是将具有某种共同特征的两种 不同事物加以对比, 用另一种事物比方所要说明的事物, 使语言形象 生动。
(1) “Charles Lamb, as merry and enterprising a fellow as you will meet in a month of Sundays.”
(2) “My brain was as powerful as a dynamo, as precise as a chemist’ s scales, as penetrating as a scalpel.
二、暗喻(metaphor)
隐喻要靠读者自己去意会的比喻。隐喻没有指明两个不同事物的 共同点,而是用一个具有形象意义的词来直接称谓(代替)某个事物。这 点需要读者或听众去意会。在某种意义上可以说隐喻比明喻更富有感 情, 更具表现力, 而且常常带有强调或夸张的语气。 (1)“Read, then, the following essay which undertakes to demonstrate that logic, far from being a dry, pedantic discipline, is a living, breathing thing, full of beauty, passion, and trauma”

(2) “Maybe somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind, a few embers still smolded. Maybe somehow I could fan them into flame.” 三、借代(metonymy)
说话或写文章时不直接说出所要表达的人或事物, 而是借用与它 有密切相关的人或事物来代替, 这种修辞方法叫借代。恰当地运用借 代可以突出事物的本质特征, 增强语言的形象性, 而且可以使文笔简 洁精炼, 语言富于变化和幽默感。
(1) “I was not one to let my heart rule my head”. “heart”指代 “feelings or emotions”, “head”指代“wisdom, intelligence, or reason.” (2) “Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter.” “Dicto Simpliciter”指代“a dicto simpliciter addictum sedundum quid. (3) “You are guilty of Post Hoe if you blame Eula Becker.”“Post Hoc”替代“the logic fallacy called post hoe”.

四、移就(hypallage or trans ferred epithet)
移就, 又称词语移用,就是有意识的把描写甲事物的词语移用来 描写乙事物, 是在特殊语言环境中改变词语搭配关系的一种临时迁 就, 是词语搭配的创造性运用。从语言逻辑上看, 好像不合规范, 也不 合情理, 但在具体的语言环境中, 它却能赋予一个词语以新的意义, 增 强语言的表达效果。
(1)“I said with mysterious wink and closed my bag and left.”(para. 40) “A mysterious wink”就是一个典型的移就的例子。形式上看 “mysterious”修饰了“wink”, 但是实际上从意义上讲, 它应该修饰 “said”。这句话要表达的是I said mysteriously with a wink. 五、夸张(hyperbole)

(1)“It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect.” (2)“.He just stood and...
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