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Topics: Working class, Andrew Carnegie, Trade union Pages: 17 (4319 words) Published: May 11, 2014
APUSH Notes #1: Semester II

Closing the Western Frontier

Key Tensions
Native Americans   Buffalo Hunters, Railroads, U.S. Government, U.S. Military Cattlemen   Sheep Herders
How should the land be used/exploited
Who should use the land
Ranchers   Farmers
Ranchers let the cows eat the farmer’s grass
The farmers’ land was not that good of land that ranchers owned Ethnic Minorities   Nativists
Know-Nothings (Northeast)
Against immigration (Chinese) and Catholics
Cheaper competition of labor
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
First time a law restricted immigration based on a specific ethnicity Environmentalists   Big Business Interests (mining, timber), Local Government Officials, Farmers, Buffalo Hunters Beginning of the national park system

Beginning of saying that you do not need to exploit every single acre of land in the frontier—leave land for outdoor on the frontier - Lawlessness of the Frontier   “Civilizing” Forces The “Romance” of the West

Vigilante justice
Bounty hunters
If someone has had something stolen, they put together possies to hunt the thief done People had to take matters into their own hands
Absence of justice
No civilization in these boom-towns for mining
Railroad Construction
Railroad industry fueling the movement to the west
First corporate big business in American society
Homestead Act of 1862
Promised settlers 160 acres of land hoping they would farm and had to commit for 5 years 500,000 took advantage of the act
2/3’s failed because of harsh weather conditions, small land, limited amount of water Much of the good land was going to the Railroad Company
Mining Centers
Trying to make it big in the Great Plains (Denver, Sacramento, San Francisco) Striking it rich quick
Try to pan gold through the rivers
Mining (“Boom”) Towns—Now Ghost Towns
People would go and search for gold in places where there were rumors of gold Build a saloon and then would leave when gold is out
New Agricultural Technology
Steel Plow (“Sod Buster”)
Break up the ground for planting
“Prairie Fan”  Water Pump
Water source
Barbed Wire
Shortage of wood
Allowed the farmers to keep the cows off their grass
Frontier Life
Individuality, self-sufficient
Families worked together to get food
The Reality—A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
1-2 rooms
All family members lived there
Farmers are becoming a minority of the American workforce from 1685-1900 60%-47% of the American workforce
Farms in the U.S. double in this same period
Amount of crops are skyrocketing
Wheat in Russia and other countries are producing
Overproduction lower price on crops
Can’t pay for the mortgage, debts
Companies are going to come in and buy up the foreclosed farms and turn American farming into industrialized American production Able to pay for the machines and get it from the factories
Able to withstand the falling prices of crops
Frederick Jackson Turner
Felt the frontier represented a constant opportunity for people to remake their life Constant rebirth and a spiritual ingenuity
Thought that Americans would be taking the value of democracy and American values with them when they went to the western frontier Believed the frontier alleviated class tensions
Equalizer
The Significance of the Frontier in American Society (1893)
When the frontier closed in 1890, Turner thought that if Americans no longer have the western frontier, it could be a threat to ongoing American democracy Great Depression (1893)
Lack of market for goods
Going past the Pacific Ocean for markets

The New South

Want to industrialize with cheap labor
Southern workers are paid half of what the Northern workers are earning Businesses in the North have the capital and will take most of the profits from the South South lacks education and diversification in labor as well

Cities prominent in South are Birmingham (steel), Memphis (lumber), and Richmond (tobacco) South sees more growth than any other region, in...
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