Chapter 18 Argumentation-Persuasion Notes:
What is Argumentation-Persuasion?
Ex: “You can’t possibly believe what you’re saying.” Ex: “Look, I know what I’m talking about, and that’s that.”
Argument = verbal battle propelled by stubbornness and irrational thought with one person pitted against the other. (heated exchange) **in writing/text**
Argumentation = using clear thinking and logic, the writer tries to convince readers of the soundness of a particular opinion on a controversial issue Persuasion = while trying to convince, the writer uses emotional language and dramatic appeals to readers concerns, beliefs, and values. Argumentation-Persuasion Essay (combined) = is when you advance your position through a balanced appeal to reason and emotion.
How Argumentation-Persuasion Fits your Purpose and Audience
Logos, Pathos, and Ethos
Logos = soundness = the facts, statistics, examples, and authoritative statements you gather to support your viewpoint. Pathos = emotional power of language = appeals to readers needs, values, and attitudes, encouraging them to commit themselves to a viewpoint or course of action. Ethos = credibility or reliability = whenever you write an argumentation-persuasion essay involves an interplay of logos, pathos, and ethos. *The exact balance among these factors is determined by your audience and purpose. 1) Supportive Essay = Agrees
2) Wavering Essay = Sometimes, kind of, not really sure about how they feel on the issue/topic. 3) Hostile Essay = apathetic, hostile, or skeptical about it (doesn’t not agree). Antithesis = a statement that asserts the
Relevant = pertinent: a relevant remark.
Representative = more than one side
Sufficient = fact, opinion and examples.
Refute = unsound, unfair or weak
Occurs when the meaning of a key term turns into a argument
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