Louis Braille

Topics: Braille, Blindness, Louis Braille Pages: 30 (5748 words) Published: November 13, 2010
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This article is about the blind writing method. For other uses, see Braille (disambiguation). |[pic] |It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Braille code. (Discuss) |

|Braille | |Type |Alphabet (non-linear writing) | |Spoken languages |Several | |Created by |Louis Braille | |Time period |1821 to the present | |Parent systems |Night writing | | |Braille | |Unicode range |U+2800 to U+28FF | |ISO 15924 |Brai | |Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. |

Braille code where the word ⠏⠗⠑⠍⠊⠑⠗ (premier, French for "first") can be read. Listen to this article (info/dl)
This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-09-06, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles
The Braille system is a method that is widely used by blind people to read and write. Braille was devised in 1821 by Louis Braille, a blind Frenchman. Each Braille character or cell is made up of six dot positions, arranged in a rectangle containing two columns of three dots each. A dot may be raised at any of the six positions to form sixty-four (26) possible subsets, including the arrangement in which no dots are raised. For reference purposes, a particular permutation may be described by naming the positions where dots are raised, the positions being universally numbered 1 to 3, from top to bottom, on the left, and 4 to 6, from top to bottom, on the right. For example, dots 1-3-4 would describe a cell with three dots raised, at the top and bottom in the left column and on top of the right column, i.e., the letter m. The lines of horizontal Braille text are separated by a space, much like visible printed text, so that the dots of one line can be differentiated from the Braille text above and below. Punctuation is represented by its own unique set of characters. The Braille system was based on a method of communication originally developed by Charles Barbier in response to Napoleon's demand for a code that soldiers could use to communicate silently and without light at night called night writing. Barbier's system was too complex for soldiers to learn, and was rejected by the military. In 1821 he visited the National Institute for the Blind in Paris, France, where he met Louis Braille. Braille identified the major failing of the code, which was that the human finger could not encompass the whole symbol without moving, and so could not move rapidly from one symbol to another. His modification was to use a 6 dot cell — the Braille system — which revolutionized written communication for the blind.

|Contents | |[hide] | |1 The Braille alphabet | |2 Writing Braille | |2.1 Letters and numbers | |2.2 Other symbols | |2.3 Grade 2 Braille contractions | |2.4 Unicode rendering table...
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