o Self Induction
o Mutual Induction
o Faraday’s Law
o Lenz’s Law
I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher, Mrs. Sandhya ma’am, who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic of adsorption. This has helped me in doing a lot of research, and I came to learn about so many new things. I am really thankful to her.
Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and friends, who helped me a lot in finishing this project within the limited time. I completed this project not only for marks, but to also increase my knowledge.
Thanks again to all who helped me.
Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. It underlies the operation of generators, transformers, induction motors, electric motors, synchronous motors, and solenoids. Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831 though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829. Around 1830 to 1832, Joseph Henry made a similar discovery, but did not publish his findings until later.
An easy way to create a magnetic field of changing intensity is to move a permanent magnet next to a wire or coil of wire. Remember: the magnetic field must increase or decrease in intensity perpendicular to the wire (so that the lines of flux "cut across" the conductor), or else no voltage will be induced:
Faraday was able to mathematically relate the rate of change of the magnetic field flux with induced voltage (note the use of a lower-case letter "e" for voltage. This refers to instantaneous voltage, or voltage at a specific point in time, rather than a steady, stable voltage.):
The "d" terms are standard calculus notation, representing rate-of-change of flux over time. "N" stands for the number of turns, or wraps, in the wire coil (assuming that the wire is formed in the shape of a coil for maximum electromagnetic efficiency).
This phenomenon is put into obvious practical use in the construction of electrical generators, which use mechanical power to move a magnetic field past coils of wire to generate voltage. However, this is by no means the only practical use for this principle.
If we recall that the magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire was always perpendicular to that wire, and that the flux intensity of that magnetic field varied with the amount of current through it, we can see that a wire is capable of inducing a voltage along its own length simply due to a change in current through it. This effect is called self-induction: a changing magnetic field produced by changes in current through a wire inducing voltage along the length of that same wire. If the magnetic field flux is enhanced by bending the wire into the shape of a coil, and/or wrapping that coil around a material of high permeability, this effect of self-induced voltage will be more intense. A device constructed to take advantage of this effect is called an inductor.
The property of self-inductance is a particular form of electromagnetic induction. Self inductance is defined as the induction of a voltage in a current-carrying wire when the current in the wire itself is changing. In the case of self-inductance, the magnetic field created by a changing current in the circuit itself induces a voltage in the same circuit. Therefore, the voltage is self-induced. The term inductor is used to describe a circuit element possessing the property of inductance and a coil of wire is a very common inductor. In circuit diagrams, a...
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