An aircraft that has elevons (combined ailerons and elevators) e.g., Concorde is governed by slightly different equations.

The effect of the tab angle is usually ignored as most tailless aircraft have powered controls and so no tabs. The lift equation therefore becomes

Moments about the cg give us:

For TRIM, the elevon angle to trim is [pic]
For STABILITY it is clear that the aerodynamic centre is also the neutral point for a tailless aircraft (hn = h0 and Kn = h0-h)

Control Hinge Moments

When we consider the aerodynamic moment acting about the hinge line on the control surface itself there are contributions coming from the incidence and camber of the aerofoil as well as from the deflections of the controls

The coefficient of hinge moment is given by:

[pic] where Sη = control surface area and [pic]= control surface mean chord – both of which are measured aft of the hinge line. So we can say that: [pic] and it is normal to neglect the tab term when dealing with elevons. Exercises

1. The data below applies to an aircraft in steady level flight at 200kt EAS. Calculate the elevator angle required for longitudinal trim. Also obtain the stick-fixed neutral point and the static margin. NB: the cg is 0.61m aft of leading edge of mean chord |Parameter |Value | |Weight, W |30 kN | |1 knot |0.515 m/s | |ρ0 |1.225 kg/m3 | |Wing area, S...

...–II Stability and control
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter 1 Introduction (Lectures 1,2 and 3)
Keywords : Importance of stability and control analysis ; brief historical background ; basic concepts – staticstability, dynamic stability, longitudinal, lateral and directional stability, control fixed and control free stability ; controllability; subdivisions of the subject; course outline. Topics 1.1 Opening remarks 1.2 Brief outline of historical developments 1.2.1 Early developments 1.2.2 Subsequent developments 1.3 Basic concepts about airplane stability and control 1.3.1 Stable, Unstable and neutrally stable states of equilibrium 1.3.2 Types of motions following of disturbance – subsidence, divergence, neutral stability, damped oscillations, divergent oscillation and undamped oscillation. 1.3.3 Staticstability and dynamic stability 1.3.4 Recapitulation of some terms – body axes system, earth fixed axes systems, attitude, angle of attack and angle of sideslip 1.3.5 Longitudinal and lateral stability 1.3.6 Control fixed and control free stability 1.3.7 Subdivisions of stability analysis 1.4 Controllability 1.5 General remarks 1.5.1 Examples of stability in day-to-day life 1.5.2 Airplane stability depends...

...the extreme tip). c,, chord at root of wing or plane of symmetry. S, wing area. _, angle of sweepback, measured between the lateral axis and a line through the aerodynamic centers of the wing sections. (See fig. i.) (,aerodynamic twistin degreesfrom root to tip, measured between the zero-lift directions f o the center and tip sections, positivefor washin.
pitching moments of the wing sections. C,o.,., wing pitching-moment coefficient about aerodynamic center. Cz., wing lift coefficient. Cv_, wing induced-drag coefficient. GENn_ rORMt_AS
Formulas in terms of the section characteristics.The induced angle of attack at any section is obtained from c_ by c_ m0 The section induced-drag a, and c_ from coefficient is obtained from
z, longitudinal coordinate, parallel to the root chord. y, lateral coordinate, perpendicular to plane of symmetry. z, vertical coordinate in the plane of symmetry, perpendicular to the root chord. x_._., x coordinate of wing aerodynamic center. a, wing lift-curve slope, per degree. ao, wing section lift-curve slope, per degree. m, wing llft-curve slope, per radian. m0, wing section ];ft-curve slope, per radian. a, angle of attack at any section along the span. a,, wing angle of attack measured from the chord of the root section. ao,, absolute wing angle of attack measured from the zero-lift direction of the root section. ab,, angle of zero lift of the root section. a_0_ angle of zero lift of the tip section.
and the induced-drag...

...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN
Faculty
Course
Year/
Semester
Session
:
:
:
Engineering & Science
ME, MM, MH, BI, CI, CL
Y1S1, Y1S2, Y1S3
:
Unit Code
Unit Title
Lecturer
:
:
:
UEME1132
Statics
Ms. Lam Foong Sin
201405
Experiment 1: Young’s Modulus
Introduction
The Young’s Modulus Apparatus is a bench-top model designed for students to understand and to
determine Young’s Modulus of given material samples.
It consists of an epoxy coated steel reaction frame complete with a meter long linear scale. Two
adjustable supports provide the variable span needed to perform the experiment. Stainless steel
weights and hangers are provided for applying loading to the beams. One set of dial gauges to 0.01
mm resolution, complete with mounting brackets are employed for the measurement of the beam
deflection.
A theory and experiment Work Sheet is provided for students to follow the appropriate procedure
of operation and computation.
Experimental Capabilities
1. To investigate the relationship between load, span width, height (depth) and deflection of
a simply supported beam.
2. To ascertain the Coefficient of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) for steel, brass and aluminium.
Accessories : Set of Stainless steel hanger and weights
Set of dial gauges (0.01 mm resolution)
Four leveling feet with built-in spirit level
Dimensions : 1050 x 400 x 300 mm
Weight : Approximately 50kg
Young’s Modulus
The elastic modulus is one of the...

...FRICTION
Problem 507
The 2225-N block shown in Fig. P-507 is in contact with 45° incline. The coefficient of static friction is 0.25. Compute the value of the horizontal force P necessary to (a) just start the block up the incline or (b) just prevent motion down the incline. (c) If P = 1780 N, what is the amount and direction of the friction force?
Solution 507
Part (a) – Force P to just start the block to move up the incline
The force P is pushing the block up the incline. The push is hard enough to utilize the maximum allowable friction causing an impending upward motion.
answer
Part (b) – Force P to just prevent the block to slide down the incline
In this case, the force P is not pushing the block upward, it simply support the block not to slide downward. Therefore, the total force that prevents the block from sliding down the plane is the sum of the component of P parallel to the incline and the upward friction force.
answer
Part (c) – Force P = 1780 N
From the result of Part (b), the maximum force to prevent downward motion is 1335 N which is less than 1780 N. The force P therefore is pushing the block up the incline, thus, friction will act downward as shown below.
answer
Problem 512
A homogeneous block of weight W rests upon the incline shown in Fig. P-512. If the coefficient of friction is 0.30, determine the greatest height h at which a force P...

...
1.0 ) THEORY
(I) StaticStability of Floating Body
Referring to Figure 1, the weight W of the floating body passes through its center of gravity G. The upthrust or buoyancy force FB acting on the floating body passes through the center of buoyancy B, which corresponds to the centroid of the displaced fluid. When the floating body is subjected to a small angular displacement or perturbation θ about its equilibrium upright configuration, the center of buoyancy shifts from B to B’, while the center of gravity of the floating body remains unchanged at G. A vertical line drawn upward from B’ intersects the line of symmetry at M, known as the metacenter. GM is known as the metacentric height.
(a) If M is above G (GM > 0), a restoring couple acts on the floating body in its displaced position tending to restore it to its original position. Hence, the body is in stable equilibrium.
(b) If M is below G (GM < 0), an overturning couple acts on the body. Hence, the body is in unstable equilibrium.
(c) If M coincides with G (GM = 0), the resultant couple is zero, and the body has no tendency to return to, nor move further away from its original position. Hence, the body is in neutral equilibrium.
Figure 1 Staticstability of a floating body
If the body floats stably, it may be shown that the period of oscillations for small angles of displacement θ is given by
,
where KOy is the radius of gyration of...

...terminologies such as stability, control and modes of flight. This also influences various controls and components on keeping the aircraft in its desired flight path with the aid of an explanation on the purpose of the design features of high-speed aircraft parts.
Furthermore, as fluid dynamics refers to the relationship between fluid and an object, that is passing through it. It entails how the object will react with the fluid under various conditions in the field of aviation as the main systems are the control surfaces and various parts of the aircraft. This fluid in this case, is the atmospheric air.
Therefore, the aerodynamics principles of aircrafts stability and flight envelopes to different maneuvers will be discussed below in addition to various stability and control of fundamental of flight.
TASK 1
Motions of an aircraft
Motions of an aircraft refer to the movement of an aircraft during time of flight. It’s relatively how it maneuvers to change its state from one position to another. The various types of aircraft motion include; pitch, roll, yaw, climb etc.
Pitching: this is the up and down movement of the aircraft’s nose which takes place along the lateral axis.
Yawing: this is the left and right motion of the aircraft’s nose which takes place along the vertical axis and is controlled by the rudder.
Rolling: this is the differential movement of the wings of the aircraft in an upward or downward direction which...

...P R I C E S TA B I L I T Y:
W H Y I S I T I M P O R TA N T
F O R YO U ?
CONTENTS
1
2
Foreword
3
4
5
5
Price stability:
why is it important for you?
6
Summary
6
2
Chapter 2
Money – a short history
2.1 Functions of money
2.2 Forms of money
1
15
16
18
Chapter 1
Introduction
11
3
B OX E S
3.1 Measuring inflation
– a simple example
Chapter 3
The importance of price stability 23
3.2 The relationship between expected
inflation and interest rates
– the so-called “Fisher effect”
26
3.1 What is price stability?
24
28
3.3 The benefits of price stability
29
3.4 Demand for cash
32
3.3 Hyperinflation
2
31
3.2 Measuring inflation
25
4
Chapter 4
Factors determining price developments
35
4.1 What monetary policy can and cannot do – an overview 36
4.2 Money and interest rates – how can monetary policy
influence interest rates?
38
4.3 How do changes in interest rates affect the expenditure
decisions taken by consumers and firms?
38
4.4 Factors driving price developments over
shorter-term horizons
44
4.5 Factors driving price developments over
longer-term horizons
B OX E S
4.1 Why can central banks influence
(ex ante) real interest rates?
The role of “sticky” prices
39
4.3 The quantity theory of money
47
4.2 How do changes in aggregate demand
affect economic...

...egrettably, Professor Jayavel Sounderpandian passed away before the revision
of the text commenced. He had been a consistent champion of the book, first
as a loyal user and later as a productive co-author. His many contributions and
contagious enthusiasm will be sorely missed. In the seventh edition of Complete Business
Statistics, we focus on many improvements in the text, driven largely by recommendations
from dedicated users and others who teach business statistics. In their
reviews, these professors suggested ways to improve the book by maintaining the
Excel feature while incorporating MINITAB, as well as by adding new content
and pedagogy, and by updating the source material. Additionally, there is increased
emphasis on good applications of statistics, and a wealth of excellent real-world problems
has been incorporated in this edition. The book continues to attempt to instill a
deep understanding of statistical methods and concepts with its readers.
The seventh edition, like its predecessors, retains its global emphasis, maintaining
its position of being at the vanguard of international issues in business. The economies
of countries around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined. Events in Asia
and the Middle East have direct impact on Wall Street, and the Russian economy’s
move toward capitalism has immediate effects on Europe as well as on the United
States. The publishing industry, in which large international conglomerates have acquired...