The long summer ch. 3
The virgin continent: 15,000 - 11,000 BC
Thesis: “Fifteen thousand years ago, Siberia and Alaska were joined by a wind-swept plain, featureless but for a few shallow river valleys. (p. 36)
Central Beringia linked Siberia to North America
It was formed 100,000 years ago after the last glacial period. B.
Humans were following migrating animals which eventually led them into North America. C.
First Americans probably arrived 15,000 years ago and came from Northeast Asia D.
First settlers were small groups of hunter/gatherers.
The first Americans were thought to be the Clovis.
Paul Martins belief that Clovis were big game hunters (based on sites that found spear tips alongside mammal bones) were disproved with further evidence. B.
Clovis people were skilled hunter/gatherers that survived off a variety of trees, nuts, small game. C.
Small bands of people roamed and could adapt to the changing climate and elements.
Act One occurred form 20,000 - 18,000.
Due to extreme temperatures at the end of the Ice Age, people and animals were heading South through Siberia. B.
15,000 Years ago the climate began warming and there were more defined seasons, which affected human and animal migration. C.
Settlers began to move further South through Siberia into Russia.
Act Two begins around 13,500 in Alaska.
The environment has improved with the great warming, causing animals and plants to thrive around lakes, seacoasts and valleys. B.
The warming caused Bering land bridge to disappear pushing animals and settlers to higher ground. C.
Paleo Artic people moved into the Tenana River Valley and continued to live a nomadic hunter/ gatherer life in small bands.
Alaska was surrounded by ice sheets that were always moving and pushing south. B.
In 1988 Heinrich discovered six layers that represented land caused by warming and movement of glaciers, followed by quick cooling. C.
Heinrich 1 (15,00 years ago)...
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