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Summary notes for GEO

World cities

* In the last three or four decades there has been a significant shift an international economy based on trade controlled by national- states to a more global economy were TNCs challenge authority on national states

* The world cities are the place where the worlds most important financial and corporate institutions are located and where decisions that ‘drive’ the global economy are made *
* 3 dominant word cities include :
* new york
* London
* Tokyo
* World city : control or command centres in the net work of cities around the globe * Transport and communication hubs

*
Urbanisation

* Urbanisation refers to the increasing proportion of a country’s population living in towns and cities. * Urban growth on there other hand this is defined as the rate at which an urban population increases in a given period relieve to its size at the start of that period. * It is possible to have urban growth as well as having a negative rate of urbanisation. * The rate of urbanisation is higher in developing countries * Urbanisation involves the shift from populating from rural areas to urban areas , this is because of factors such as ‘push’ and ‘pull’ *

*
* Push
* Employment opportunities
* Landlessness
* Promise of higher standards of living
* rural poverty
*
* pull
*
* Entertainment
* Lack of medical facilities
* Medical facilities
* Lack of educational opportunity
* Educational opportunities
* Intolerance of alternative life styles
*
* Emergence of world cities
* The impact of globalisation is not evenly distributed
* There is an increasing difference between a developed and developing economies . * the gap between the mega-cities of the developing world and the world cities of advanced economies is widening * social and spatial restructuring in major world cites ( developed ), has been the out come of economic globalisation. *

*
* Nature and character and spatial distribution of world cities *
* The emergence of world cities is the product of the globalisation of economic activity. This happened during the 1960s this was because of factors like : * Technological developments in transport and communication * A move away from protectionist economic polices

* The deregulation of new information based forms of economic activates * The emergence of new ways of organising economic enterprises. * The emergent of transnational corporations ( TNCs)

* These developments have contributed to a rapid expansion in world trade, because of these developments, the functions performed by the cities we now refer to as world cities, this is because they have moved beyond the national scale to become increasingly international. * Because of the emergence of world cities, they have an integral part of the internationalisation of a spatially dispersed * These world cities are often not the largest in terms of population, rather they are important as centres of international finance, transnational business and international business services. * They are regional national and international economies into global economy. * With in the global net work of world cities exist several subsystems *

* Asian sub system
* Tokyo
* Singapore
* Hong kong
*
* North American sub system
* New york
* Los angeles
* Chicago
*
* West European subsystem
* London
* Paris
*
* Sothern hemisphere
* Sao Paulo
* Johannesburg
* Sydney
*
* Apart from Johannesburg, none of the world cities are located in Africa, this is because of Africa’s marginalisation with in the worlds economic system * Some world city’s are based n the presence of information-based activates such as : finance, law, accounting,...
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