AIM:
To study about logic gates and verify their truth tables.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL No.| COMPONENT| SPECIFICATION| QTY|
1.| AND GATE| IC 7408| 1|
2.| OR GATE| IC 7432| 1|
3.| NOT GATE| IC 7404| 1|
4.| NAND GATE 2 I/P| IC 7400| 1|
5.| NOR GATE| IC 7402| 1|
6.| X-OR GATE| IC 7486| 1|
7.| NAND GATE 3 I/P| IC 7410| 1|
8.| IC TRAINER KIT| - | 1|
9.| PATCH CORD| -| 14|

THEORY:

Circuit that takes the logical decision and the process are called logic gates. Each gate has one or more input and only one output. OR, AND and NOT are basic gates. NAND, NOR and X-OR are known as universal gates. Basic gates form these gates.

AND GATE:
The AND gate performs a logical multiplication commonly known as AND function. The output is high when both the inputs are high. The output is low level when any one of the inputs is low.

OR GATE:

The OR gate performs a logical addition commonly known as OR function. The output is high when any one of the inputs is high. The output is low level when both the inputs are low.

NOT GATE:

The NOT gate is called an inverter. The output is high when the input is low. The output is low when the input is high.

NAND GATE:

The NAND gate is a contraction of AND-NOT. The output is high when both inputs are low and any one of the input is low .The output is low level when both inputs are high.

NOR GATE:

The NOR gate is a contraction of OR-NOT. The output is high when both inputs are low. The output is low when one or both inputs are high.

X-OR GATE:

The output is high when any one of the inputs is high. The output is low when both the inputs are low and both the inputs are high.

PROCEDURE:
(i) Connections are given as per circuit diagram.
(ii) Logical inputs are given as per circuit diagram.
(iii) Observe the output and verify the truth table.
AND...

...WORKING OF LOGICGATES
SUBMITTED BY:-
Shamil Choudhury
ROLL__________ No_____________
Karimganj Junior College Of Science
CONTENTS……..
TOPICS Page No
1. CERTIFICATE 1
2. INTRODUCTION 2
3. THEORY 3-4
4. EXPERIMENT 5-6
5. RESULTS 7
6. CONCLUSION. 7
7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 8
8. REFERENCE 9
INTRODUCTION
A gate is a digital circuit that follows certain logical relationship
between the input and output voltages. Therefore, they are generally known as logicgates — gates because they control the flow of information. The five common logicgates used are NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR. Each logicgate is indicated by a symbol and its function is defined by a truth table that shows all the possible input logic level combinations with their respective output logic levels. Truth tables help understand the behavior of logicgates. These logicgates can be realized using semiconductor devices. Here we will investigate on the working of first three logicgates i.e. OR, AND, and NOT gate.
OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
To demonstrate the working of logic...

...Logic Effort-
The method of logical effort is a term coined by Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull in 1991, is a straightforward technique used to estimate delay in a CMOS circuit. Used properly, it can aid in selection of gates for a given function (including the number of stages necessary) and sizing gates to achieve the minimum delay possible for a circuit.
Each logicgate is characterized by two quantities: its logical effort and its
parasitic delay. These parameters may be determined in three ways:
_ Using a few process parameters, one can estimate logical effort and parasitic
delay as described in this chapter. The results are sufficiently accurate for
most design work.
_ Using test circuit simulations, the logical effort and parasitic delay can be
simulated for various logicgates. This technique is explained in Chapter 5.
_ Using fabricated test structures, logical effort and parasitic delay can be
physically measured.
Logical effort captures enough information about a logic gate’s topology—the network of transistors that connect the gate’s output to the power supply and to ground—to determine the delay of the logicgate. In this section, we give three equivalent concrete definitions of logical effort.
Definition 4.1 The logical effort of a logicgate is defined as the number of times...

...
7-Segment Display ( Basic LogicGates )
I. Introduction
A Seven Segment Display (SSD) is a form of electronic device that is used for displaying numbers from zero to nine (0-9). It has been used as an alternative to the more complicated dot matrix, as it is a lot more readable and has an easier implementation.
This device may use LCD (Light Crystal Display), a light-emitting diode (LED) for each segment or other light-generating or controlling techniques. It has been used for a lot of equipment nowadays such as in digital clocks, electronic meters, and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information.
In this project, we have applied our knowledge and skills in the configuration of circuit using basic gates in order to have a display of the numerical values of zero to nine. We need to understand such, because there will be a need to apply this in the future projects that we will be having, in our thesis perhaps. As future engineers, we must understand the theory or logic behind this devices and its importance to the world of technology.
II. Objectives
To build a circuit using basic gates (AND gate, OR gate and NOT gate) for a Binary Coded Digit to 7-segment display. Such circuit must have a truth table and K-map that would prove that the outputs are correct having zero to nine numerical value output.
III. Presentation of...

...Lab 1: Digital Logic Lab Introduction
Date of experiment: 1/30/2014
Date of Submission: 6/2/2014
Submitted by: Evgeniya Koshelyaevskaya
Group partners : Constantin Bercov, Rachel Revzin
College of Staten Island
Objective
1. To get familiar with the Cadet station and the basic equipment used for the experiment.
2. To investigate the behavior of the IC Chips obtained from the technician.
3. Compare theoretical data with the obtained experimental data to verify the logicgates.
Apparatus and Materials
1. CADET Station
2. Logic probe
3. Wires
4. IC Chips
a. 7400 (two-input NAND)
b. 7402 (two-input NOR)
c. 7404 (inverter)
d. 7408 (two-input AND)
e. 7432 (two-input OR)
f. 7486 (two-input XOR)
Discussion
1. After getting familiar with the station provided by the technician we located all the logic indicators on the right side and logic switches on the left side of the CADET as well as we noted the holes in the plastic strip near the switches and LED’s that were needed in order to connect the wires.
2. It is necessary to make sure that +5/+V switches near the logic indicators are set to +5 V which is default logic voltage levels.
3. Connection of logic switches with the logic indicators provides a low output before we turn on the switch and after we do the switch corresponding to the...

...Digital Logic
•Introduction, Truth Tables and Boolean expressions
•LogicGates
•Combination of LogicGates
•Circuit tracing and Boolean expressions
•Creating Truth Table from a circuit
•Creating a Circuit from a Truth Table
•Basic Boolean Algebra
•Using Boolean Algebra for Circuit Simplification
•Practical Considerations
Digital Circuit versus an analog circuit
•Digital systems operate based on discrete information or signals,
were as an analog system relies on continuous information or
signals.
•Digital systems are binary in nature, they have two distinct states
as opposed to the infinite states available in an analog system.
•A Digital system accepts discrete inputs and generates discrete
outputs, such as On/Off, High/Low, True/False, or 1/0.
EXAMPLE 7.1
Car
Seat
Pressure
Sensor
Comparator
Enable
Accelerator
Seat
Belt
Voltage
Sensor
Possibilities: Y or N
Pressure
Comparator
A
Voltage Run
F=
B
F
Function of Truth Tables and Boolean expressions
Inputs
A
B
C
Output
Digital
Circuit
A Truth Table is used to describe
the relationships of inputs and
outputs in tabular form.
Input Combinations
Output
A B
C
F
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
F
A Boolean expression can be used
to describe the relationships of
inputs and outputs in...

...A logicgate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logicgates have two inputs and one output. At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binaryconditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage levels. The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often, as the circuit processes data. In most logicgates, the low state is approximately zero volts (0 V), while the high state is approximately five volts positive (+5 V).
There are seven basic logicgates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR, and XNOR.
The AND gate is so named because, if 0 is called "false" and 1 is called "true," the gate acts in the same way as the logical "and" operator. The following illustration and table show the circuit symbol and logic combinations for an AND gate. (In the symbol, the input terminals are at left and the output terminal is at right.) The output is "true" when both inputs are "true." Otherwise, the output is "false."
AND gate
Input 1
Input 2
Output
1
1
1
1
1
The OR gate gets its name from the fact that it behaves after the fashion of the logical inclusive "or." The output is "true" if either or both of the inputs are "true." If both inputs are "false," then the output is...

...topic of logicgates has been done by DEBARPITA PANDE , a student of class XII-A in the academic year 2014-2015 under the guidance of Mr.S.K.MISHRA and is submitted to AISSCE Practical Examination conducted by CBSE at Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1 Salt Lake, Kolkata.
Signature of external examiner Signature of chemistry teacher
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, I would extend our deepest gratitude and sincere thanks to my kind and helpful physics teacher MR.S.K. MISHRA,who always encouraged me in my projects and its completion and in the rectification of my doubts.
I am extremely indebted and grateful to our Head of the Institution, Dr. SUMANLATA for providing me the sources, so that I can successfully complete out project.
I express my deep sense of gratitude to my parents for their love and support all over the way, giving us valuable solutions and new ideas.
I would also like to thank our lab assistant Mr. SUBHASH
I would like to appreciate the co-operation and vivacity offered by my colleagues and friends that made this project easy and feasible. They helped me in the domains of creativeness, designing, managing and in demonstration of new ways to accomplish my tasks.
DEBARPITA PANDE
Index
Bonafide certificate
Acknowledgement
Introduction
Aim of project
Materials required
Logicgates
Types of gates
The OR gate
The AND...

...com/site/computing9691/
Chapter 1.10 LogicGates 1.10 (a) Function of AND, OR, NOT, NAND & NOR Logicgates and their input/output.
Microprocessors are the central hardware that runs computers. There are several components that make a processor. The first is the transistor. Next, are logicgates where you put more than one transistor to work with others. The microprocessor works with binary arithmetic by using binary math to perform operations. When a microprocessor is designed, along with other design focus areas "Logicgate cell library (a library is collection of all low level logic functions like AND, OR and NOT etc.), which is used to implement the logic" is also deeply planned and developed. Logicgates carry out the instructions mathematical or otherwise that a processor performs, for example a logicgate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. When you connect a variety of logicgates together, the results are circuits. The logic is called Boolean logic and is most commonly found in digital circuits. Following five logicgates are part of syllabus. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. AND gate, OR...