Logic- Greek word ‘logos’ which means thought, word, speech, science. Founded by Aristotle around 384-322 B.C. through his famous philosophical masterpiece “organon” Organon- the universal rational instrument for the acquisition of philosophical knowledge. Logic is about the attainment of truth. It is the art and science of correct thinking. Thus, thinking and reasoning. Thinking- it means mental operations or the process of drawing out conclusions from previously known data. Correct Thinking- thinking with the right procedure.
Multiplicity of Language:
1.Heuristic- for giving instructions
2.Imaginative- for literacy expression
3.Ideation- for expressing ideology
4.Manipulative- for others to make things done
Types of Logic:
1.Formal- refers to the correctness of structure, sequence and rules. 2.Material- refers to the subject matter, content or truth.
Logic of Concept
Simple Apprehension- act of the mind wherein it understands or comprises knowledge on the nature or essence of a thing without affirming or negating anything or also called “Ideogenesis.” Idea- deduced from the Greek word for ‘Image’- representation of a thing. Phantasm- sensible representation of the material features of a thing. Concept- representation of an object by the Intellect.
Word- conventional sign that signifies thoughts or concept.
Types of Concept:
1.First Intention- we understand a thing according to reality. 2.Second Intention- we understand a thing not only in reality but also how it is in our minds. 3.Concrete- expresses a form and a subject.
4.Abstract- expresses only a form.
5.Absolute- complete substance endowed with its independent reality. Term- from the Latin word Terminus meaning external sign of a concept. Logical properties of terms
Comprehension/Connotation- sum-total of all the qualities/elements of attributes that comprises a meaning of a term. Extension/Denotation- sum-total of the particulars to which the comprehension of a term can be applied. Classification of Terms:
According to Meaning:
1.Univocal or Homologous Terms- exactly the same meaning applied in at least two occurrence. 2.Equivocal Terms- same external signs, in at least two occurrence, but signifies different concepts or essences. 3.Analogous Terms- have partly the same and partly different meaning in at least two occurrences. According to Extension/quantity:
1.Singular- definite individual or a thing.
2.Particular- indefinite part of a whole.
3.Universal- every subject signified.
4.Collective- group or collection of objects or individuals considered as a unit. According to Relation:
1.Identical Terms- synonymous meanings.
2.Contradictory- posit a positive and negative conceptual element. 3.Contrary- represent extremes in a certain order or class.
4.Privative- signify perfection and the other negates that perfection. 5.Relation- cannot be understood without the other.
According to Object:
1.Real- something independent from the human mind. It may be either affirmative or negative. 2.Logical- conceptual instrument employed to signify an object present only in the mind in its learning and thinking process. 3.Imaginary- fabrication of fantasy.
Categories/Predicaments- classifications of universal natures or concepts. 1.Substance- existential actuality or reality.
2.Quantity- order of homogenous parts of a substance.
3.Quality- substance consisting a distinctive attribute or characteristic. 4.Relation- reference of one object/quality to another.
5.Activity- engendering some results extrinsic to the agent. Categories/Predicaments:
1.Passion- reception of an activity as consequence of the influence of another. 2.Time element- circumstantial analysis existing in a substance assessing the reference to time as when. 3.Spatial element- circumstantial analysis existing in a substance’s location surface, or space. 4.Position- assessment of the substance to the order...