Philosophy is the study of argument and its application to a wide variety of questions of fundamental importance to human life and the intellectual activity. Philosophy is as much the study of what constitutes a sound' or valid' argument.
Logic is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of principles of correct reasoning. Logic is the former discipline, which tells us how we ought to reason if we want to reason correctly. Logic is the distinction between correct and incorrect reasoning. Logic requires necessary support for a valid argument. Logic is one of the two species of an argument recognized by Aristotle. Logic includes many different elements such as values, beliefs and opinions. Logic studies consistency, and logical truths, and the properties of logical systems. The main concern of logic is how the truth of some propositions is connected with the truth of another.
Aristotle's logic revolves around one notion: the deduction. A deduction is a speech in which, certain things supposed, something different from those supposed results of necessity because of their being so. (Prior Analytics I.2, 24b18-20) Each of the "things supposed" is a premise of the argument and what "results of necessity" is the conclusion. The premise of an argument is a proposition that forms the basis of an argument. The premise of an argument provides and supports evidence for the conclusion.
The conclusion is the portion of an argument which the evidence has been presented. The conclusion is the final decision made or an opinion formed after considering the relevant facts or evidence produced in the premise. The conclusion summarizes all information produced to support the final decision.
Two types of logic are inductive reasoning along with Aristotle's preferred method, deductive reasoning.
Inductive logic is reaching a conclusion based on observed instances. Inductive logic is the process of reasoning in which the premises... [continues]
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