Motivation involves a constellation of beliefs, perceptions, values, interests, and actions
that are all closely related. As a result, various approaches to motivation can focus on cognitive
behaviors (such as monitoring and strategy use), non-cognitive aspects (such as perceptions,
beliefs, and attitudes), or both. For example, Gottfried (1990) defines academic motivation as
“enjoyment of school learning characterized by a mastery orientation; curiosity; persistence;
task-endogeny; and the learning of challenging, difficult, and novel tasks” (p. 525). On the other
hand, Turner (1995) considers motivation to be synonymous with cognitive engagement, which
he defines as “voluntary uses of high-level self-regulated learning strategies, such as paying
attention, connection, planning, and monitoring” (p. 413).
Motivation refers to “the reasons underlying behavior” (Guay et al., 2010, p. 712).
Paraphrasing Gredler, Broussard and Garrison (2004) broadly define motivation as “the attribute
that moves us to do or not to do something” (p. 106). Intrinsic motivation is motivation that is
animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure. As Deci et al. (1999) observe, “intrinsic
motivation energizes and sustains activities through the spontaneous satisfactions inherent in
effective volitional action. It is manifest in behaviors such as play, exploration, and challenge
seeking that people often do for external rewards” (p. 658). Researchers often contrast intrinsic
motivation with extrinsic motivation, which is motivation governed by reinforcement
contingencies. Traditionally, educators consider intrinsic motivation to be more desirable and to
result in better learning outcomes than extrinsic motivation (Deci et al., 1999).
What motivate student
Level of motivation according to whether the cause is perceived as
something that is changeable and within the person’s control (Weiner, 1985, as cited in Eccles... [continues]
Cite This Essay
(2012, 10). Local Related Literature of Modern Leadership. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 10, 2012, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Local-Related-Literature-Of-Modern-Leadership-1124665.html
"Local Related Literature of Modern Leadership" StudyMode.com. 10 2012. 2012. 10 2012 <http://www.studymode.com/essays/Local-Related-Literature-Of-Modern-Leadership-1124665.html>.
- MLA 7
"Local Related Literature of Modern Leadership." StudyMode.com. StudyMode.com, 10 2012. Web. 10 2012. <http://www.studymode.com/essays/Local-Related-Literature-Of-Modern-Leadership-1124665.html>.
"Local Related Literature of Modern Leadership." StudyMode.com. 10, 2012. Accessed 10, 2012. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Local-Related-Literature-Of-Modern-Leadership-1124665.html.