Local Government in the Russian Federation
Author: Viktoria Faculty of Public Administration
Research supervisor: O.Kalugina
The “new history” of local government in Russia dates back to the beginning of the 1990s when the country embarked upon a new political and economic course leading to an open democratic society with an efficient market economy. However, even a cursory glance at the way local governments function in present-day Russia reveals their main deficiency: local government institutions are still very weak and their potential for social and economic development are extremely limited. This paper discusses some issues that seem to be relevant to the provision of local government in Russia. It addresses general as well as some region-specific questions. Background.
The Russian Federation consists of eighty-nine member regions called subjects of the Federation. For purposes of statistical reporting, these regions are grouped into twelve economic zones. However, these zones are likely to be replaced by the seven federal districts recently formed for purposes of political and administrative oversight Subjects of the Russian Federation include twenty-one republics, six krais, forty-nine oblasts, two federal cities, one autonomous oblast and ten autonomous districts. Despite the diversity of categories, all subjects of the Federation have equal status pursuant to the Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993). However, the Federative Treaty, an integral part of the Constitution, allows for bilateral agreements between the central government and member regions which grant regions special rights and obligations. As of October 2000, fifty-one regions had concluded forty-seven such agreements with the federal government, with the majority of the regions being republics. It should be noted that the classification of regions as republic, krai or oblast is derived from historical reasons and does not generally provide any indication of status. The federal government, recognizing the risks in continuing to develop asymmetric federalism, eventually revoked most privileges previously granted to individual regions. To signal a return to a policy of uniform federalism, the State Duma of the Russian Federation passed a law in 2000 mandating that all regions bring their legislation into conformity with the Constitution and with federal legislation.1 Nonetheless, complete uniformity will be difficult to attain in a country as large and diverse as Russia.
Although local government has already become an integral part of the public administration system in the Russian Federation, it still remains burdened with many complicated problems , in my work I will tell you about Problems with the Local Government Legal Foundation and The Financial and Economic Problemsof Local Government. The professional significance.
Although there is plenty of literature on local government, its role and significance is often underestimated by scholars, government officials, and public opinion. At the same time, one can easily distinguish a number of universal factors that determine the objective necessity of local self-government in a democratic state.First, local government is a means of optimizing public governance.. Second, local self-government allows individual political rights and freedoms to be realized. Local self-government varies considerably in countries with different constitutional systems. Even in a single country, there is great diversity over different stages of its history: in regard to local governments’ organizational forms, range of...