IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD.
In today’s world, the relationship between globalization and culture is significant and debatable issue, since their effects to each other. There are many meanings about globalization; however, we can say globalization was born between earlier nineteenth and twentieth century; moreover, it represents dominant economic and social politics of European states and United States over other countries(Griffin as cited in Cullenberg and Pattanaik ,2004). Griffin says that all “cultures, all ways of life are products of exchange. And cultural change, or cultural dynamism, is a product of interaction with other cultures. (as cited in Cullenberg and Pattanaik ,2004 pg:248)” In other words, she(as cited in Cullenberg and Pattanaik ,2004) argues that cultures are as a result of globalization. On the other hand, unlike Griffin, other some researchers consider globalization as a reason for extinction of cultures by global corporations. For instance, Ritzer (2008) claims that after globalization effects has appeared, local cultures became more similar each other. Moreover, Castells (as cited in Jackson,2004) agrees Ritzer and he claims that globalization is the main reason for destruction of local differences.
Local food consumption culture has considerable place in this research. Slow Food nation, was established in 1989, is an international member supported organization for defend the idea of good, clean and fair food. In one of their manifesto, they mentioned that “A food community is connect to specific geographical area from a historical, social, economic and cultural point of view(Slow Food nation as cited in Ritzer,2008 pg:196).” In other words, local foods are significant parts of local cultures, as they are product of the them. After 1970s and 1980s, local and regional agriculture systems took a part of globalization(Phillips,2006).In addition to this, we may say that global process in food sector has become more significant issue after,1990s. Also Dicken(as cited in Jackson,2004) claims when nation states has lost their economic identities in 1990s, local tastes and cultures started to lose their differences through standardized global products which are created by global corporations with no respect to their cultures. What are these corporations? Heffernan & Constance(as cited in Phillips,2006) claims that food related transnational corporations (TNCs) are the motor forces behind the rising global food system. Also Bruinsma(2003) mentioned that TNCs are able to unite countries into global markets, since their ability to manage resources, enter markets, and work on recent technologies. In other words, to investigate relation between food and globalization, we should look the historical development of food related transnational corporations(TNCs) and their actions.
In this research, history of developing globalization is very important to see its situation and how it gets more effectiveness on culture. In other words, historical research will provide to see changing economic politics and rise of global corporations and their impacts over cultures. In addition to this, the situation of local food consumption cultures in today’s global world another significant issue for understanding struggle between globalization and local food consumption culture. What ways has globalization affected local food consumption cultures?
Zhang claims that “ Globalization has integrated the product of economies around the world through the driving forces of trade and capital flows across borders (Zhang,as cited in Ghosh and Guven,2006,pg 109)” and similarly globalization aims to make local food consumption cultures the part of integrated world economic system. The food globalization process has started after 1990s and it has rapidly spread whole world time by time through food related transnational corporations. Also struggles has appeared...