Literature Review on Types of Discipline

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Types of Discipline Problems

2.1.1: Vandalism
According to article ‘What is vandalism’, written by Dye1, she defined vandalism as a crime that generally involves the destruction, disfigurement of public or private property. A person does not have to destroy a property to be charged with vandalism. This crime can include acts that simply demise a piece of property. For example, a person may rip the seats of a school bus. The bus is still operable, but its value and its ability to be used are greatly reduced. Kraus (1979) said that vandalism consequences are often simply causing trouble and anger. One aspect of school vandalism is often reported in research studies from the United States as the research from Rubel (1977) states that the connection of vandalism with other types of school crimes such as petty theft in the school and personal violence against staff and students. According to Cohen (1973) the public sees this type of behavior as threatening. Even though vandalism is directed at public property, the public still feared being victims of uncontrolled juveniles that roaming the street.

2.1.2: Absenteeism
Then, Heathfield2 defined absenteeism as the chronic absent from work or study. Absenteeism usually addressed through progressively stricter disciplinary measures that can result in the termination of the individual’s employment. This is generally governed by the institution attendance policy. Rayner & Riding (1996) cited Schostak (1980) in the United Kingdom that found at least 800,000 students absent from school for unexcused reasons. Webb (1993) suggest that approximately half a million students were absent each day. Students who have absenteeism problems generally suffer academically and socially. According to Baker and Jansen (2000), studies indicate that students who are absent have lower achievement and may be penalized on test scores. Sustained absences may lead to retention and truancy....
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