Literature Review on Training and Development

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study
The workplace today is in the state of metamorphosis with contemporary issues such as customer satisfaction, competitive advantage, revenue and expenditures, organizational culture, technological advancement, global market, diverse customer demands and need for effective work force with a global mind set, penetrating every aspect of the organization. Effective workforce is therefore crucial as it is the organization’s primary player in accomplishing goals and delivering service In order for any organization to be more competitive and successful in achieving its goals, it would have to synergize all its resources which includes the human resources (HR) and their training and development structure that can work well and blend together. The stress on human resource training and development (HR T&D) to provide strategic and cost efficient training services for employees has never been higher.Employee performance expectation keeps rising while the economic recession has caused training budget to shrink causing the Human Resource Training and Development unit to do more with less. Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals and also helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources' technical and behavioral skills in an organization. In addition it also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employee at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.Training and Development importantly increases the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal and on the whole improves upon the quality of work and work-life. The Ghana Institute of Languages (GIL) was established in 1961 with the prime aim of promoting Pan-Africanism. Core business

1. Teaching and research into international languages.
2. Advising Government on languages
3. Offering translation/interpreting services to organization, individuals, tourists, etc. 4. Offering bilingual secretarial services and guides to organizations and individuals.(NLCD 324 of 1969) Its aim was to teach modern languages and advice government on language matters as a way of promoting Pan-Africanism, integrated economic development and cordial relations between Ghana and other countries.The GIL now offers the singular opportunity to students eager to learn Arabic, English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish. The importance of this institute is amply illustrated by the fact that it was placed under the Presidency at the time of its establishment, with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs exercising oversight responsibility.  It was not until the early 1990s that GIL was placed under the Ministry of Education. Right now, the Institute is under the Ministry of Education with the National Council for Tertiary Education exercising oversight responsibility. GIL has since 1964 and 1974 added two professional schools, namely School of Translators and the School of Bilingual Secretaries, to its programmes, making it one of the most important institutions in Ghana today. (retrieved 14/07/2010 from http://theghanaianjournal.com) The GIL is unique and the only institute of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa where people from countries of the African and West African sub-region pursue programmes in language competence, applied linguistics, particularly in professional translation and bilingual secretaries and provides professional translation and interpretation and secretarial services.     To add to this, its social...
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