Literature Review on the Use of Ict as Classroom Practice

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Literature review
Using ICT as a classroom practice in Science lesson: The effect on students’ motivation and achievement on learning

Vast development on ICT (Information communication technology), along with the globalization of the economy has changed the field of education. According to RAND Corporation (2002) in their report on Teaching and learning 21st century skills: Lesson from learning sciences, one of the nine lessons to teach in 21st century skills is to make use of technology to support learning. Technology presents students with new ways to develop their problem-solving, critical thinking, and communication skills. Now, the implementation of ICT plays an important role in education reforms, locally and internationally. According to partnership for 21st century skills (2007), Assessment of the 21st century skills includes teaching in new style that requires a balance of technology-enhanced. In Brunei Darussalam, the new education system SPN 21 that is Sistem Pendidikan Negara Abad Ke-21 (The National Education System for the 21st Century) requires students should learn oral skills, communication skills, ICT skills, research skills, creative thinking skills etc. Countries internationally for example USA, Denmark, Japan, Finland, Portugal Spain also have started to infuse ICT into the Science curriculum (Cheng 2002). An important view on ICT is that it is observed as modern and therefore relevant to students. It is therefore very significant to conduct a study to see how technological inventions can be useful in education and how it affects the student’s learning.

The use of ICT in education supports a quality improvement of the learning process assisting both supporting curriculum aims and the development of educational skills (Chrisostomou & Savvidou, 2000). ICT also alters the learning environment and the learners. It involves changes in the curriculum content, the instruction process, and the relationship between teacher and students (Wong, 2008). A number of features of new technologies are consistent with principles of science of learning and helps in improving education by bringing real world problems into the class and provides scaffolds and tools to enhance learning (Kozma R, 2003).

Science education is one of the core curriculum subjects (Chrisostomou & Savvidou, 2000). This is also true in Brunei Darussalam (MOE, 2013). In the article “The new 21st century National curriculum Brunei Darussalam” Brunei’s Science curriculum area of study intended that learners will be able to achieve among others “ understand the impact of science on the phenomenal technological changes that have accompanied it and its effects on medicine and to improve the quality of life, on industry and business and on the environment”..also to “Understand process skills and possess appropriate values and attitudes for personal development to participate in a world of technological change”.

According to Osborne, J (2003) in his report stated that the New Opportunities Fund (NOF) scheme for training for teachers in using ICT in classroom appears to be that Science is more successful and used in using ICT than any other subject. He also says that tools for data capture, processing and interpretation for example data logging systems, data analysis software, databases and spreadsheet, graphing tools are the ones that can support practical activities is currently the most significant form of ICT application for Science teaching and learning. This is also supported by Chrisostomou & Savvidou (2000) whereby ICT plays an important role in enriching Science education. ICT can be use as instructional tool in science teaching and learning which includes enhancing the Science objectives and goals at the same time develop Science skills. A study done by Kozma (2003) which examine the findings from 174 case studies of the use of ICT in education from 28 different countries stated that a large number of cases...
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