Smoking and School Achievement
Joseph J. Lee
The College of New Jersey
This literature review was completed as an assignment for an Introduction to Counseling class at The College of New Jersey under Dr. Atsuko Seto. The use of correct APA format in both citations and general formatting, although has been evaluated prior to being turned in for grading, is not guaranteed. I would like to thank Dr. Seto and the entire Counselor Education Program at The College of New Jersey for being patient, informative, and overall very effective instructors.
A literature review on the affects of parenting styles on adolescent smoking and school achievement. The parenting style major components are measured to see if they are independent risk factors or independent protective factors for adolescent smoking. Results vary from study to study; however, it is generally agreed across all studies that the authoritarian parenting style is the most effective. It has been found that the monitoring, a part of the demandingness aspect of Daumrind’s (2005) three identified parenting styles is the most controversial independent variable in relation to adolescent smoking. This literature review was aimed to help inform school counselors thus, a section on how parenting involvement affected school achievement. Keywords: literature review, parenting style, adolescent smoking. School achievement
Adolescent smoking is a problem that many school counselors are confronted with. It would be advantageous for school counselors to understand from different perspectives as to why adolescents begin to and continue to smoke. In this section we will look at how parenting styles, characterized by responsiveness and demandingness as well as other factors affect adolescent smoking. Baumrind (2005) defines responsiveness as “the extent to which parents foster individuality and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to children’s requests; it includes warmth, autonomy support and reasoned communication”, and demandingness as “the calims parents make on children to become integrated into society by behavior regulation, direct confrontation, and maturity demands (behavioral control) and supervision of children’s activities (monitoring)” (as cited in Areepattamannil, 2010). It would be to the counselor’s benefit to have an understanding of how parental styles influence adolescent smoking for when working with parents themselves and in the creation of prevention programs. Research
Authoritative parenting style and adolescent smoking and drinking. In a research article by Piko and Balazs (2012), it was hypothesized that the authoritative parenting style characterized high responsiveness and high demandingness served as protective factors against adolescent substance use, for the purpose of this review focus was put on smoking. Other factors were also considered including gender, age, negative family interactions and positive identifications with parents were also considered as protective and risk factors. The authoritative parenting index was used to measure both responsiveness and demandingness. Negative family interactions and positive identification with parents were measured via questions such as “During the past month, how often have your parents yelled at you?” and “How much do you respect your parents?” respectively. This study also hypothesized that “parental control might play a more important role in late adolescent’s behavior” (Piko & Balazs, 2005), thus lifetime and monthly prevalence of smoking and drinking were also measured in the study. The results of this study showed that gender was not a significant factor in smoking, both boys and girls, regardless of age, smoked at the same rates. Piko and Balazs (2005) also found that regardless of age, lifetime prevalence and monthly prevalence more ‘negative...