Article 1: Marketing Myopia3
Article 2: An Integrated View of Marketing Myopia4
Article 3: Beyond Marketing Myopia: The Service of Small Railroads5 Article 4: Futuristics: Reducing Marketing Myopia6
Article 5: Reconsidering the Classics: Reader Response to "Marketing Myopia"7 Article 6: Global Marketing Myopia8
Article 7: Editorial: Marketing Myopia9
Article 8: Extending the marketing myopia concept to promote strategic agility10 Article 9: The New Marketing Myopia11
Article 10: Corporate marketing myopia and the inexorable rise of a corporate marketing logic: Perspectives from identity-based views of the firm12 Bibliography13
Article 1: Marketing Myopia
Every major industry was once a growth industry. But some that are now riding a wave of growth enthusiasm are very much in the shadow of decline. Others that are thought of as seasoned growth industries have actually stopped growing. In every case, the reason growth is threatened, slowed, or stopped is not because the market is saturated. It is because there has been a failure of management.
1.An industry is a customer-satisfying process, not a goods-producing process. Businesses will do better in the end if they concentrate on meeting customers’ needs rather than on selling products. 2.Companies stop growing because of a failure in management, not because the market is saturated but because of MYOPIA.
Example: Railroads declined because they “were railroad oriented instead of transportation oriented; they were product oriented instead of customer oriented.” They declined not because of cars, trucks, airplanes, and even telephones, but because of their own myopia.
The article is as much about strategy as it is about marketing, but it also introduced the most influential marketing idea of the past half century: that businesses will do better in the end if they concentrate on meeting customers' needs rather than on selling products.'
Article 2: An Integrated View of Marketing Myopia
The article brings out the types of Marketing Myopia in a classification scheme. It highlights the importance of cross-fertilization ideas and innovative marketing strategies. Marketing Myopia was initially described as a firm’s short-sightedness or narrowness when it is attempting to define its business. Marketing Myopia can be classified along two-dimensions: (1) Management’s definition of the firm (2) The firm’s business environment perspective. Firms with a single-industry perspective are preoccupied with the actions and reactions of immediate competitors. Firms with a multi-industry perspective, on the other hand, have a broader outlook of the market. The combination of the two dimensions produces a matrix with four scenarios: (1) Classic Myopic Firm, with a product definition/single-industry perspective (2) Competitive Myopic Firm, with a customer definition/single-industry perspective (3) Efficiency Myopic Firm, with a product definition/multi-industry perspective (4) Innovative firm with a customer definition /multi-industry perspective. BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT PERSPECTIVE
ProductClassic MyopiaEfficiency Myopia
CustomerCompetitive MyopicInnovative Firm
Figure 1: Firm Scenarios
Article 3: Beyond Marketing Myopia: The Service of Small Railroads
The article attempts to highlight that business people should be aware of what it is they are really doing, borrowing context from the argument Theodore Levitt made in his classic 1975 article on marketing myopia. He maintained that companies should look beyond the basic function of what they are doing and determine what the customer really wants. Levitt used railroading as an example of an industry barely able to see past its nose. Railroading declined, Levitt said, because railroaders thought their job was to be railroaders, to run trains. They failed to realize they were in the transportation...