Literature Review on Lifestyle Modification in Men

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Literature Review on Lifestyle Modification in Men
This literature review seeks to investigate what Lifestyle Modification entails. Lifestyle Modification has been defined as a proactive approach to optimum health and wellness by how we live our lives. Chronic non-communicable diseases are currently the main cause of both disability and death worldwide. These diseases affect people of all ages and social classes worldwide. Sassi and Hurst in 2008 cited Abegunde et al (2007) who stated that globally of the 58 million deaths that occurred in 2005, approximately 35 million, or 60%, were due to chronic causes. Most of them were due to cardiovascular disorders and diabetes (32%), cancers (13%), and chronic respiratory diseases (7%)). Hypertension is also one of the modifiable lifestyle diseases. A World Health Organization (WHO) study projected an increase of global deaths by a further 17% in coming years the period 2005-2015, meaning that of the 64 million estimated deaths in 2015, 41 million people will die of a chronic disease (WHO, 2005). In researches done at the Mayo clinic in February 2011, it was found that some of the biggest threats to men’s health were Hypertension, Stroke, Cancers, Heart Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Chronic lower Respiratory diseases. Men’s Health : Preventing the top 7 threats Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research(2011) Retrieved September 23,2011 from . In researches done by WHO   lifestyle modifications include: Maintaining daily physical activity and limiting television watching. Contemporary life in developed nations has markedly reduced people’s opportunities to expend energy, reductions in physical activity are also occurring in developing countries because of urbanization, increased availability of motorized transportation to replace walking.

However, regular physical activity is a key element in weight control and prevention of obesity (IAR 2002; Swinburn and others 2004). Prevention of Chronic Disease by Means of Diet and Lifestyle Changes Walter C. Willett, Jeffrey P. Koplan, Rachel Nugent, Courtenay Dusenbury, Pekka Puska, and Thomas A. Gaziano .

Cessation of Smoking has also been identified as a form of lifestyle modification. Smoking accounts for approximately 21.5% of deaths from coronary artery disease and 18% of deaths from stroke. The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is increased 10-fold in smokers. The risk of various cancers, including lung, oral, esophageal, renal, and bladder cancer is also increased by smoking. Reduction in

cardio-vascular risk begins immediately after smoking cessation and continues over time. Within 5-10 years after cessation, the risk is reduced to a level almost equivalent to that in nonsmokers.

 Chronic lower respiratory diseases

Chronic lung conditions — which include bronchitis and emphysema — also are a concern for men. To protect your respiratory health:

Don’t smoke. If you smoke, ask your doctor to help you quit. Also avoid exposure to secondhand smoke.

Steer clear of pollutants. Minimize exposure to chemicals and outdoor air pollution.

Prevent respiratory infections. Wash your hands often and get a yearly flu vaccine. Ask your doctor whether you need a pneumonia vaccine as well (Mayo Clinic 2011).


You can’t control some stroke risk factors — such as family history, age and race — but you can control other contributing factors. For example:

Manage chronic conditions. If you have high cholesterol or high blood pressure, follow your doctor’s treatment recommendations. If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under control.

Don’t smoke. If you smoke or use other tobacco products, ask your doctors to help you quit.

Make healthy lifestyle choices. Eat a healthy diet, being especially careful to limit foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Include physical activity in your daily...
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