Literature Review on Bullying

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Bullying Research “In 2008, students ages 12 to 18 were victims of about 1.2 million nonfatal crimes (theft3 plus violent crime at school, compared to about 1 million nonfatal crimes away from school The total at-school crime and theft victimization rates of students ages 12 to 18 declined between 2007 and 2008. The total crime victimization rate of students ages 12 to 18 at school declined from 57 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2007 to 47 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2008.” "Bullying." usdoh. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2012. .

Bullying Defined: “Bullying is commonly defined as a specific type of aggressive behavior that involves intent to cause harm, occurs repeatedly, and involves a power imbalance. This definition remains the subject of some debate, particularly in regard to whether these characteristics require assessment by an objective outsider or can instead rely on the perception of the victim. In line with current literature, measures of bullying need to encompass the three broad domains of behaviors that constitute bullying: direct physical bullying, direct verbal bullying, and indirect bullying in which the person or group of persons doing the bullying is not necessarily identified. This latter form of bullying is often a form of social manipulation and includes the more recently recognized phenomenon of cyber bullying.” Hunt, C., Peters, L., & Rapee, R. (2012). Development of a measure of the experience of being bullied in youth. Psychological Assessment, 24(1), 156-165. • In-text citation: (Hunt, Peters & Rapee, 2012) Bullying Stats and Types “Peer victimization is a serious problem affecting our nation's schools, with nearly 36% of secondary students experiencing victimization at some point during their school career. Nansel and colleagues (2001) found that approximately one in three sixththrough 10th-grade students reported moderate or frequent involvement in bullying behavior, which includes being victimized by peers or bullying others. Peer victimization may take many forms, but is most commonly characterized by being the target of physically (e.g., being hit, pushed, or kicked), relationally (e.g., attempting to damage one's interpersonal relations and social status through social exclusion and rumormongering), verbally (e.g., name calling or mean teasing), or cyber (e.g., character defamation through technological means) aggressive acts conducted over time that are intended to cause physical harm, psychological distress, or humiliation.” Characteristics of Bullying Victims: “This study explored how certain personality traits, behaviors, and social status may be associated with who is targeted as a victim of peer aggression. The sample consisted of

233 students in sixth through eighth grades from rural communities. For the children in their study, risk of victimization seemed to be greatest for adolescents who were disliked by peers, perceived as anxious or depressed, and were physically weaker than peers. Physical weakness appears to consistently contribute to victimization, particularly among boys; however, other physical characteristics do not. That is, studies have found that children who possess physical attributes such as obesity, wearing corrective lenses, speech problems, or exhibiting some form of physical disability are no more likely to be victims of aggression than their peers who do not possess these characteristics. Olweus (1993), however, suggested that these physical characteristics may cause children to have low self-esteem and possess a demeanor that invites harassment. Thus, internal characteristics (e.g., low self-esteem) rather than physical characteristics appear to be a possible predictor of victimization.” “Children who appear socially inept have an increased likelihood of being victimized. For example, Bernan (2009) found that children who display inattentive and hyperactive behaviors are more likely to be victimized by peers, perhaps because their impulsive behaviors...
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