Literature Review of Celebrity Endorsement

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Running head: A LITERARY REVIEW OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT

Celebrity Endorsement in Mass Media Advertising Brands

Celebrity endorsement in mass media advertising has become a very beneficial phenomenon for many countries and has significantly increased in the past decade, and should be the main principle of brand communications since it is the key to marketing success. Any product that is displayed in a television commercial or magazine advertisement by a corporation that uses a celebrity or well known public figure to give a testimonial or information about the product, is practicing celebrity endorsement. Although commonly thought of starting in the United States, celebrity endorsement began in India during the ‘80s but has since been adopted by countries in Asia, Europe, and almost worldwide. Modern mass media (especially that of tabloids) has increased exposure of celebrities to the point that it is unavoidable to not be exposed to a celebrity face. The primary principle that celebrity endorsement works off of is the public recognition of the celebrity endorser as an admirable or desirable cultural force. It is not uncommon to view commercials from the past 10 years and see popular icons like Britney Spears endorsing a particular soft drink like Pepsi or Michael Jordan endorsing Nike as the number one brand for anyone that has even the slightest liking to sports. These celebrities among many others, are used to promote products, services, and ideas (Kambitsis et al., 2002). A reason for the increase in the usage of celebrity endorsing on various levels of mass media is almost exclusively due to the fact that this strategy results in more positive advertisement and product ratings (Dean and Biswas, 2001), as well as

A LITERARY REVIEW OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT
an increase in the purchasing of the product and in turn, increased finances for the producer (Erdogan, 2001). Most celebrity endorsers come from the entertainment and sports industries. Nevertheless, more than likely, the celebrity endorser is not known to the public for the product that they are endorsing (Friedman, 1979), therefore they are not experts of that product. As mentioned previously for example, Britney Spears has endorsed Pepsi. She is an iconic pop singer and even though she wrote a song called “Joy of Pepsi,” she is not an expert on what the best tasting soft drink is; her fame has no relation to what she is endorsing. Besides those obvious facts, Pepsi’s sales increased four times as fast as their competitor (DeNitto, 1994). Although celebrity endorsing is very expensive for the companies, in the long run it has often helped their sales because they are recognized by the public and viewed as more powerful than an anonymous face of a model (Carroll, 2008). Celebrities are also interested in endorsing themselves in the product as their image considerably develops rather quickly along with the product. According to Speck (1988), endorsements involve three participants; sellers, endorsers, and target consumers. This is because the seller asks an endorser to use and evaluate a product, and then after trying a product, the endorser encourages the target consumers and personal fans to also purchase and try out the product. Advertising campaigns using celebrities to support brand strategy have in general tended to be repetitive, high-profile and loud extravaganzas in which the celebrity features prominently and directly, unlike the product itself, which seems more like an addition to the whole scheme of the advertisement (Carroll, 2009). Celebrity endorsement is a powerful marketing strategy compared to the

A LITERARY REVIEW OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT
likes of public relations and sales promotion but has been the most long-standing beneficial strategy out of all (Hsu and McDonald, 2002). Choosing the Celebrity Endorser
Giving a brand a recognizable ‘face’ is often more than just a marketing strategy, but for better or...
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