Literature Review of 14-19 Education

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BA/BA(Hons) Education and professional Development

DIA0120
Introduction to Research and Academic Writing

A Literature Review of the Development and Integration of 14-19 Vocational and Academic Pathways.

Contents

Abstract………………………………………………………………………...Page 3 History of 14-19 Education…………………………………………………..Page 4 Academic/Vocational Education and Funding…………………………….Page 5 -8 Teaching, Learning and Inspection.........................................................Page 9-11 Employer contribution………………………………………………………..Page11-13 The Future……………………………………………………………………..Page 13-15 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………..Page 15 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………Page 16-17

Abstract
This literature review compares research conducted and articles written about the development of 14-19 education and the changes it has gone through since 2002. It briefly outlines the initial implementation of 14-19 education during the Thatcher government before going on to concentrate on how the Labour government introduced Diplomas and what the Coalition government are doing to push this agenda forward. It asks whether academic and vocational education can ever be valued equally and whether the introduction of 14 year olds in further education establishments is successful or not. The majority of the literature was commissioned either by the government or conducted in 14-19 educational establishments. Similarities and comparisons between the research are identified and questions are asked as to how successful it might be in the future. .

History of 14-19 Education
The idea of 14-19 education was introduced in 1983 by the Conservative government under its leader Margaret Thatcher. The first development was called the Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), and was a pilot scheme was rolled out into schools and colleges in1988. The scheme was run by the Manpower Services Commission (MSC,) which came under the Department of Employment not the Department of Education and Science. Jeremy Higham and David Yeomans point out in the London Review of Education (2011) that, from 1988 to 2002 14-19 vocational education was on simmer and it was not until 2002 under the New Labour government that we saw renewed enthusiasm to for this area of education. The initiative came from the Curriculum 2000 Reform of Advance Qualifications. Between 2002 and 2010 the focus was back on the progression of our young people and, essentially, the future of our work force. The Labour government commissioned an independent enquiry by Mike Tomlinson in 2004 who proposed a new vision for 14-19 education, recommending the introduction of Diplomas. These would build on the strengths of the education system already in place. However the government rejected this and decided to keep GCSE and A levels but to offer diplomas as an alternative the initiative gained respect from schools, colleges and local authorities. Diplomas were introduced in 2008 but have not been successful in gaining credit in industry or education; this has brought forward many issues relating to 14-19 education from teaching and learning, funding, employer contributions and the integration of school age pupils in FE colleges. The current Coalition government commissioned Alison Wolf to review 14-19 education in 2011.

Academic/Vocational Education and Funding
A major divide in 14-19 education is attitudes towards academic and vocational training. To give equality and value to both sides of what is still an educational ‘divide’ we need to alter society’s thinking and social attitudes. The review of the 14-19 Green Paper by the Department for Education (2002) states that, ‘Pushing for parity of esteem in the current educational climate leads to ‘academicising’ vocational subjects. It was felt by some that the vocational was being forced into the traditional classroom-dominated achievement environment, rather than realistically accepting the different teaching and assessment demands...
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