Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1
Literature Review and Conceptual Framework Juvenile Diversion Programs/IPS Julie I Carter Capella University PSF8374-Currenr Research on Violent Behavior Dr. Rob Hanser
LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Literature Review and Conceptual Framework History The history of diverting arrested juveniles from formal processing began with the birth of the juvenile courts. Conceived in the late 19th century, juvenile justice provided for a rehabilitation-based response to juveniles’ illegal behavior. Punitive sanctions being received by youth in criminal courts were being set aside in the juvenile courts. Thus, in its infancy, juvenile justice could be construed as a “diversion program”. Considered to be in the best interest of the juvenile and society, juvenile justice diverted youth from criminal proceedings by providing dispositions that were more attuned to the potential to change the young offender’s behavior, and lives through clinical services, special rehabilitation programs, and tight educational guidance. (Models, 2010) First adopted by the adult criminal justice system, was the idea of diversion. This idea became the topic of discussion within the juvenile justice system in the 1960’s. The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice recommended exploring alternatives for addressing the needs of troubled juveniles outside of the court system in 1967. In 76, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Special Emphasis Branch supplied 10 million dollars in funding specifically for the development of diversion programs. These efforts were strictly driven by the belief that these types of programs would yield many benefits, such as allowing juveniles the option to choose an alternative to court, providing more treatment at the community level, increasing family participation, and most important, reducing the “stigma” associated with the formal juvenile justice system. (Models, 2010) As diversion has been practiced and even discussed for nearly four decades, some would contend that there is little consistency in the terms of what actually constitutes a diversion process or program, they do however agree on the common goal among these programs which is to minimize the juveniles’ involvement in the juvenile justice system.
LITERATURE REVIEW 3 Theoretical Concepts As measured by program evaluations and follow-up studies, the effectiveness of diversion programs has varied greatly from one program to the next. The successful programs, such as the Intensive Prevention Services (IPS) initiative in Philadelphia, provide very direct services that include but are not limited to parenting education, intensive family counseling, and behavioral contracting. One of the main concepts that gave birth to the development of this program was the labeling perspective. This theory or perspective, if you will, argues that juveniles who commit minor offences become habitual offenders...
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