Literature Review

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The Indian capital market has changed dramatically over the last few years, especially since 1990. Changes have also been taking place in government regulations and technology. The expectations of the investors are also changing. The only inherent feature of the capital market, which has not changed is the 'risk' involved in investing incorporate securities. Managing the risk is emerging as an important function of both large scale and small-scale investors. Grewal S.S and Navjot Grewall (1984) revealed some basic investment rules and rules for selling shares. They warned the investors not to buy unlisted shares, as Stock Exchanges do not permit trading in unlisted shares. Another rule that they specify is not to buy inactive shares, ie, shares in which transactions take place rarely. Themain reason why shares are inactive is because there are no buyers forthem. They are mostly shares of companies, which are not doing well. A third rule according to them is not to buy shares in closely-held companies because these shares tend to be less active than those of widely held ones since they have a fewer number of shareholders. They caution not to hold the shares for a long period, expecting a high price, but to sell whenever one earns a reasonable reward. Jack Clark Francis (1986) revealed the importance of the rate of return in investments and reviewed the possibility of default and bankruptcy risk. He opined that in an uncertain world, investors cannot predict exactly what rate of return an investment will yield. However he suggested that the investors can formulate a probability distribution of the possible rates of return. He also opined that an investor who purchases corporate securities must face the possibility of default and bankruptcy by the issuer. Financial analysts can foresee bankruptcy. He disclosed some easily observable warnings of a firm's failure, which could be noticed by the investors to avoid such a risk.

Preethi Singh3(1986) disclosed the...
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