Literature Review

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Literature Review 1
Jennifer McReynolds
Northcentral University

Literature Review 1
Research in the area of personality theory has numerous multifaceted concepts. Individualism and collectivism are two of these concepts. Another major concept that must be considered is Michel’s critique. The use of both microcontexts and macrocontexts aid in the understanding of personality theories. Personality also can be understood through the concept of modern interactionism. Understanding how human personality develops can lead to an increased understanding of the behaviors of individuals. Individualism and Collectivism

Every culture in society is unique however each exhibits some degree of individualism or collectivism (McAdams, 2009). Prior research indicates that these concepts influence the social behaviors of individuals. Individuals develop their self-concepts in ways that reflect their experiences within an individualistic or collectivistic society. Kulkarni et al. (2010) sought to determine if the United States and Ireland exhibit more individualistic behaviors than the other countries of Israel, India, and Bulgaria. According to this study, these cultures have difference levels of individualism and collectivism across several dimensions. These dimensions include: lack of sacrifice for the group, individual welfare, solitary work preference, supremacy in both individual goals and interests, and competitiveness (Kulkarni et al., 2010).

Kulkarni et al. (2010) used a self-report survey to collect data concerning individualism and collectivism. The sample included 219 subjects from the United States, Ireland, India, Bulgaria, and Israel. Composed of 27 items, the measurement tool collected information on the seven factors (Kulkarni et al., 2010). Information concerning the age and work experience was also collected from each subject. The study found that societies are not simply either individualistic or collectivistic but rather lie somewhere along a continuum...
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