: Okky Cendana Gradita
I. Theory of Literature
1. Literature can maintain culture means that it for tolerance, respect for particular literary tradition, respect of cultural differences, respect for the imagination and the intellect. It also reflection of nations, so young generation can learn the culture from literature
2. That means literature is reflection of people ideas and who learned it
3. Because the language used in a certain piece of work of literature can create a powerful influence in the reader’s mind and sometimes lead people to do something
4. The types of literature fall into two divisions (Edward H Jones: 1986, Francis Zavier Connoly: 1955). Firstly, the Literature of Knowledge or informative literature tells us about information such as what, why and how things are created, or how things work, or history, or stories of real individuals. It deals with fact, explanations, real people’s live, factual happenings and history. Secondly, the Literature of Imagination or creative literature aims to arouse thoughts, feelings and emotion of its reader. It interprets experience by a fictitious presentation of person, things, ideas, and events. Literature may expand or refine our minds, sharpen our thought, quicken our sense of life.
And based on the Laurence Perrine 1959 literature has two categories: firstly Literature of Escape that is written purely for entertainment, to help us pass the time in which the story is usually not too complicated. Secondly Literature of Interpretation that is written to broaden, deepen and sharpen our awareness of live, human beings and nature better.
5. Because the language used in a certain piece of work of literature can create a powerful influence in the reader’s mind and sometimes lead people to do something. By the power of written word to make us hear, to make us feel, and to make us see.
6. The characteristic are antagonist and protagonist
7. The difference between the plot in short story and the plot in a novel is the plot in short story should create a single impression, effect should be created in the opening sentence, developed throughout the work, the story end at its climax, only such characters as are essential to the effect should appear. Plot in a novel is particularly suited to deal with the effect on character of a passage of time
7. Invite the reader’s active participation in the story
8. Because the lengths of short story would be somewhere between 1.750 and 2.500 words
9. A. the maturing plot: the most common with plots which turn upon a change in character involves a sympathetic protagonist whose goals are either mistakenly conceived or not yet formed, and whose will is rudderless and vacillating.
B. the education plot: the most common type involves a change in thought for the better in terms of the protagonist’s conceptions, beliefs, and attitudes.
10. Plot refers to how the events in a story are united together.
Setting refers to the point in time and space at which the events of the plot occur. The setting includes the physical environment of the story, where a story takes places, the time of the story.
Character is an imagined person who inhabits in a novel.
Theme is general idea or insight the entire a novel reveals.
Structure is sequence and patterning of the story.
11. The relationship between truth in real life and truth in literature is that in real life we also related in literature. Truth in literature also can be happened in real life
12. Elemental conflict: Between man and the environment, between the hero and a force of nature. The hero deals with an elemental force which has no persona.
Inner conflict: the dilemma facing the character inside and its impact on that character.
Social conflict: Social Conflict is between the parent and the child, between the doctor and the patient, between the Hero and society....
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