Literary Elements

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Literary Theories: refers to a particular viewpoint critics use when analyzing literature. Each theory allows critics to consider the individual works of art based on certain assumptions. These assumptions will be specific to the theory used. While any text can be viewed from a number of different lens, do not assume that All theories can be applied to the same text. Formalism: literature is understood through its intrinsic literary features. The theory is very much text-centred. Literature is understood through its intrinsic literary features. The text is not examined from a historical, biographical, social or cultural perspective. The form of the text and the content it contains are not treated individually. They are both dependent on one another. Psychoanalytical: this theory is based on the theories of Sigmund Freud. While Freud’s theories are vast, only the following is used when studying literary texts. The unconscious, the Desires and the Defences ---- Freud asserted that people’s behaviour is affected by their unconsciousness. Humans are driven by their desires, fears, need, and conflicts of which they are not aware. To cope with these unfulfilled desires, humans develop defence mechanisms (being in denial, rationalizing) The Id, the Ego, and the Superego:

Id, Ego and the Superego – Freud stated that our desired and our unconscious conflicts influence three areas of the mind. These three areas are in conflict with one another. The Ego exists at the conscious level.

The Superego exists at the conscious level.
The Id exists at subconscious level.
Id- Man’s primitive self, as he was born with no clothes, no language and no notion of how to behave. It is determined by man’s sexual desire, which is the most basic desire of our primitive instincts. The Id constantly fights to surface and man must fight to keep these primitive urges under control so that he will appear respectable in society. From time to time the Id will get the better of a person and serious consequences may result.

Every individual has ways they have learned to keep the Id under control. Sometimes the Id cannot be controlled and it may cause a person to commit a crime. Young children are ruled by their Id. They say what they think, do what they feel, and talk what they want. Part of maturing means learning to not always act on every urge. The Superego represents the laws, rules, routines of society which force us to conform, behave and get along as social beings. This may include morals, religious views, and teachings which instruct us and inform us of what is right and wrong, good and evil. The Ego is the personalization and interpretation or reaction to the world around us. The “I” is what you present to the world. Id -- ego - superego

(Human’s wish thinks) - World- law rules
The ego is a balance between the Id and Superego.
Freudian Symbols:
* Jungle: the jungle is dense, dark and lawless. It is an excellent place for the Id to surface.

* Deserted Island: has the same quality as the jungle, and many contain a jungle which adds a further dimension of isolation.

* Journey by boat, place: Travelling away from society involves the journey inward to face the parts of one’s personality that have not previously surfaced. A journey often symbolizes a journey of self discovery.

* Colours: Movement from lightness to darkness can represent the evil or the Id in control. Lightness can represent truth, rationality, logic.

* Loss of language: represents a return to the state of childhood.

* Removal of clothing: When the Id is in control, clothes can represent society or the Superego.

* Change in appearance: Characters may paint their faces or grow their hair which represents their primitive appearance.

* Adopt animal behaviour: crawl, howl, and scream which represents the control of the Id.

* Strong sexual urge: frequent sexual activity, changing mates frequently, or harming...
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