Derived from the Latin term litera which means letter.
It expresses the feelings of people to society, to the government, to his surroundings, to his fellowmen and to his Divine Creator. – Brother Azurin
Anything that is printed as long as it is related to the ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true, or just a product of one’s imagination
History vs. Literature
Archaeology & Anthropology
Periods in Philippine Literature
1. Pre-Spanish Period.
In 1567, Baybayin, which is consists of letters and characters like those of the Malays, arrived in the Philippines.
The pre-Hispanic Filipinos wrote on many different materials; leaves, palm fronds, tree bark and fruit rinds, but the most common material was bamboo. The writing tools or panulat were the points of daggers or small pieces of iron. o
When they write, it is on some tablets made
of the bamboos which they have in those islands, on
the bark. In using such a tablet, which is four fingers
wide, they do not write with ink, but with some
scribers with which they cut the surface and bark of
the bamboo, and make the letters.
Once the letters were carved into the bamboo,
it was wiped with ash to make the characters stand out
more. Sharpened splits of bamboo were used with
coloured plant saps to write on more delicate materials
such as leaves. But since the ancient Filipinos did not
keep long-term written records, more durable
Literary Development in the Philippines/thet2012 1
materials, such as stone, clay or metal, were not used.
All early Spanish reports agreed that pre-Hispanic Filipino literature was mainly oral rather than written.
Whatever record our ancestors left were either burned by the Spanish friars in the belief that they were works of the devil or were written on materials that easily perished, like the barks of trees, dried leaves and bamboo cylinders which could not have remained undestroyed even if efforts were made to preserve them.
Pre-Spanish Literature is characterized by:
a) Legends- form of prose the common theme of which is about the origin of a thing, place, location or name. The events are imaginary, devoid of truth and unbelievable. Legends of Tagalogs b) Folktales- made up of stories about life, adventure, love, horror and humor where one can derive lessons about life. The Moon and The Sun
c) Epics- long narrative poems in which a series of heroic achievements or events, usually of a hero, are dealt with at length. Biag ni Lam-ang
d) Folk songs- mirrored the early forms of culture and many of these have 12 syllables. Kundiman e) Epigrams (Salawikain)- customarily used and served as laws or rules on good behavior by our ancestors. Matibay ang walis palibhasa'y magkabigkis
f) Riddles (Bugtong) or Palaisipan- made up of one or more measured lines with rhyme and may consist of four to 12 syllables. Limang puno ng niyog, isa'y matayog (daliri). Naligo ang kapitan, hindi nabasa ang tiyan (Bangka).
g) Chant (Bulong)- used in witchcraft or enchantment. Ikaw ang magnanakaw ng Bigas ko, Lumuwa sana ang mga mata mo, Mamaga sana ang katawan mo, Patayin ka ng mga Anito h) Maxims- rhyming couplets with verses of 5, 6 or 8 syllables, each line having the same number of syllables. Pag Hindi ukol, Hindi bubukol.
i) Sayings (Kasabihan)- often used in teasing or to comment on a person’s actuations. Ang nagsasabing tapus ay siyang kinakapus
j) Sawikain- sayings with no hidden meanings. bukal sa loob, busilak ang puso
2. The Spanish Period (1565-1898)
Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines.
Filipinos embraced the Catholic religion, changed their names, and were baptized. A. SPANISH INFLUENCES ON PHILIPPINE LITERATURE
1. The first Filipino alphabet called ALIBATA was replaced...