LECTURE: Ms. Palmer
COURSE WORK #: 3
According to May (1990, p. 59) emergent literacy is the process of learning. It is a product of children’s explorations with concepts and conventions about language with which they are familiar.
Two Early Literacy behaviours in young children
* Pretend reading
Two activities that can be used to enhance and cater for pretend reading
Young children imitate what they see adults do in society. On such thing is reading. Children will take up any form of literature and pretend that they are reading. To enhance and cater for this behaviour parents and teachers can: Activity 1
The teacher or parent should ensure that the environment that the child is in has different kinds of text that the child can manipulate. It is important that these texts are age appropriate. These texts should be colourful and has pictures that will attract the attention of this child. Whenever it is observed that these texts are been utilized by the child, the teacher or parent should ensure that the book is turned properly and that the child is reading from the left to the right. They should also make themselves available as to provide answers to questions that children might ask.
The parent or teacher can play a game with the child, whereby the child will earn points whenever he/she reads something new. When this is done, items in the surroundings will be labelled and the child will be eager to read what is written. Other items such as signs should also be read by the child. In addition, whenever the parent is making a grocery list, the child would be asked to read what is written on the list. The parent will also take the child to the supermarket and the child will be given certain items that should be bought. Upon each visit the child will be given the same items until that task is mastered.
Whenever a child scribbles something on a piece of paper or a surface, the parent or teacher should allow the child to explain what they have written. The parent can then allow the child to make a story from what have been written and ask the child questions about the story. Children will be encouraged to scribbling whatever they are thinking and or how they are feeling. They may also be encouraged to scribble whatever they want.
Parents or teachers should provide materials for children to scribble on. They can create an area in the home or school, where wall papers are placed on the wall. When this is done the parent can instruct the child to scribble on that area. Books and papers should also be supplied so that the child can utilize them.
Allington (2009) defined fluency as the ability to read efficiently, and it’s a bridge to comprehension. laBerge and Samuel (1976) put forward that fluent readers are better able to comprehend what they read because most words are easily recognised and can apply word-identification strategies when unfamiliar words are encountered. This will result in their reading been done at a faster pace and they read expressively (Kuhn and Rasinski, 2007). Been fluent is a great achievement for student where reading is concerned. This is so because students who are fluent will be better able to grasp what the passage is saying. Gaskins et al (1991) states that fluent readers develop a large repertoire of sight words and use words identification strategies to decode unfamiliar words. Pupils who are not fluent, will not be able to read as many words and don’t use as many strategies for decoding words. Research has revealed that students who don’t become fluent readers depend on guidelines for teaching word identification as summarized above.
According to Rasinski (2003), there are three components of fluency. These are accuracy, speed and prosody. Accuracy is the ability recognise familiar words automatically without the conscious...