Adverbials: before, while, when
During 1 ½ hours of elicitation, my partner and I together elicited adverbials. We elicited for a variety of adverbs, including conditionals such as ‘before’ and ‘after’, forms for time adverbs such as ‘the first time’, ‘the last time’, and also single words for times of day, week, month and year. Results:
The words we elicited are below:
|Time adverbs | | | | | |before |asati [third person] |usati [you] OR |da sati [I] | | | | |usati wa |asati da | | |after |a | | | | |while |ۗči [marker for 3rd] |u ۗči [you] |di ۗči [I] | | |when/if |kana OR pa | | | | | | | | | | |first time |tanga [ka tanga] | | | | |last time |pedzi cera [ku] | | | | |everytime |ireya | | | | |next time: |kana [conditional |pa [certain] | | | |when [certain] |pa | | | | |when [conditional more |kana | | | | |like if] | | | | | |until |kuti | | | | | | | | | | |cause/effect | | | | | |because |nekuti | | | | |then |doku | | | |
I focused on time adverbs below. The first two indicate an action, contingent upon another action. While indicates action taking place during another action; when indicates that something will happen, during a specific time:
‘before’ ‘after’ ‘while’ ‘when/if’ | | | | | | |before |asati [third person] |usati [you] OR |da sati [I] | | | | |usati wa |asati da | | |after |a [changes depending upon| | | | | |person] | | | | |while |ۗči [marker for 3rd] |u ۗči [you] |di...
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