1.1 INTRODUCTION TO LINE FOLLING ROBOT
A line follower robot is basically a robot designed to follow a ‘line’ or path already predetermined by the user. This line or path may be as simple as a physical white line on the floor or as complex path marking schemes e.g. embedded lines, magnetic markers and laser guide markers. In order to detect these specific markers or ‘lines’, various sensing schemes can be employed. These schemes may vary from simple low cost line sensing circuit to expansive vision systems. The choice of these schemes would be dependent upon the sensing accuracy and flexibility required. From the industrial point of view, line following robot has been implemented in semi to fully autonomous plants. In this environment, these robots functions as materials carrier to deliver products from one manufacturing point to another where rail, conveyor and gantry solutions are not possible. Apart from line following capabilities, these robots should also have the capability to navigate junctions and decide on which junction to turn and which junction ignore. This would require the robot to have 90 degree turn and also junction counting capabilities. To add on to the complexity of the problem, sensor positioning also plays a role in optimizing the robots performance for the tasks mentioned earlier. Line-following robots with pick- and- placement capabilities are commonly used in manufacturing plants. These move on a specified path to pick the components from specified locations and place them on desired locations. Basically, a line-following robot is a self-operating robot that detects and follows a line drawn on the floor. The path to be taken is indicated by a white line on a black surface. The control system used must sense the line and man oeuvre the robot to stay on course while constantly correcting the wrong moves using feedback mechanism, thus forming a simple yet effective closed- loop system.
•Robot movement is automatic.
•Fit and Forget system.
•Used for long distance applications.
•Used in home, industrial automation.
•Simplicity of building.
•Line following robot follows a black line about 1 or 2 inches in width on a white surface. •Line tracing robots are simple robots with an additional sensors placed on them. •It always needs a path to run either white or black since the IR rays should reflect from the particular path. •Slow speed and instability on different line thickness or hard angles.
• Guidance system for industrial robots moving on shop floor etc. • Industrial applications.
• Home applications.
1.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Fig.1.2 Block diagram of line follower
1.3 INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
An embedded system is a system which is going to do a predefined specified task is the embedded system and is even defined as combination of both software and hardware. A general-purpose definition of embedded systems is that they are devices used to control, monitor or assist the operation of equipment, machinery or plant. "Embedded" reflects the fact that they are an integral part of the system. At the other extreme a general-purpose computer may be used to control the operation of a large complex processing plant, and its presence will be obvious. All embedded systems are including computers or microprocessors. Some of these computers are however very simple systems as compared with a personal computer. The simplest devices consist of a single microprocessor (often called a "chip”), which may itself be packaged with other chips in a hybrid system or Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Its input comes from a detector or sensor and its output goes to a switch or activator which (for example) may start or stop the operation of a machine or, by operating a...