By, Priyank Patil Department of Information Technology K. J. Somaiya College of Engineering Mumbai, India

Line Follower

Contents
1. Summary 2. Introduction 2.1. What is a line follower? 2.2. Why build a line follower? 2.3. Background 2.4. Prerequisites 2.5. The AVR microcontroller 3. Overview Block Diagram and Architectural Overview 3.1. 3.2. The Algorithm 4. Implementation 4.1. Sensor Circuit Motor Interface and Control Circuit 4.2. 4.3. Source Code 5. Possible Improvements 6. References and Resources 6.1. Books and Links 6.2. Tools of the trade 6.3. Electronic shops 6.4. Parts and Prices

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Line Follower

Summary
The purpose of this document is to help you build a Line Following Robot. Starting with an overview of the system the document would cover implementation details like circuits and algorithms, followed by some suggestions on improving the design. The ‘Reference and Resources’ page has a list of relevant books, websites, electronic shops and commonly used parts & their prices.

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Line Follower

Introduction
What is a line follower? Line follower is a machine that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a black line on a white surface (or vice-versa) or it can be invisible like a magnetic field. Why build a line follower? Sensing a line and maneuvering the robot to stay on course, while constantly correcting wrong moves using feedback mechanism forms a simple yet effective closed loop system. As a programmer you get an opportunity to ‘teach’ the robot how to follow the line thus giving it a human-like property of responding to stimuli. Practical applications of a line follower : Automated cars running on roads with embedded magnets; guidance system for industrial robots moving on shop floor etc. Prerequisites: Knowledge of basic digital and analog electronics. (A course on Digital Design and Electronic Devices & Circuits would be helpful) C Programming Sheer interest, an...

...Summary of effective followers 1
Summary of “how to cultivate effective follower”
April Wang
English Composition Ⅰ
Professor Hampton
October 25th, 2012
Summary of effective followers 2
Summary of “How to cultivate effective followers”
In the article “How to cultivate effective followers”, the writer Christopher Lorenz identifies that followers who could not follow a parade in the past is playing a remarkable role during recent years, that is to say, since the followers are taken into fully account nowadays, they are becoming more efficient and play a key role in the company. However, the author also stressed that he was not going to have a debate with anyone who had great passion for leadership. According to the author, followers are divided into five types in this article: sheep, yes people, alienated followers, survivors, effective followers. In that case, some recommendations are also given to help foster efficient followers.
Truly, most of the time, we do not act as a leader but a follower. Viewing that issue, Kelly, who is an industrial administration in Pittsburgh at Carnegie-Mellon University, did a research about it. Basically, it is separated in to five different sorts...

...There have been many observations regarding the characteristics of a leader, but followership has received less attention. Treister and Schultz (1997) “suggests that a "follower is someone who accepts guidance and, on receiving it, takes the appropriate action." Treister et al (1997) also state followership is “considered a passive or submissive role of lesser importance than leadership. However, the effectiveness of leaders to a large measure depends on the qualities of their followers.” Treister et al (1997) go on to say “good leadership enhances followers, just as good followership enhances leaders." So followers are just as important as leaders are to a leader/follower relationship.
Some have categorized followers in different typologies because not all followers are the same. These typologies are based on the follower’s behavior and engagement. Kellerman (2007) “categorizes all followers according to where they fall along a continuum that ranges from "feeling and doing absolutely nothing" to "being passionately committed and deeply involved." Kellerman (2007) “chose level of engagement because, regardless of context, it's the follower's degree of involvement that largely determines the nature of the superior-subordinate relationship.” Followers may fall into different categories depending on the situation, leader, or organization....

...characteristics that are wanted by followers in their leaders could vary in different jobs for the most part they are the same. It is very important for a leader to possess these four characteristics, which are: Honesty, Forward-thinking, Inspiring, and Competence. With these four, leaders will be able to keep followers on the right path and receive the most production out of them.
Honesty with followers is the most important; this allows a trust and a bond with the followers that the correct information and guidance is being relayed in the workplace for the betterment of the company.
Forward-thinking is looking toward the future and your followers seeing that you do have plans and goals for the future. It is important for the followers to know that the company and their leaders are not only working for today.
The ability to inspire your followers and is also important to motivate them from a production stand point. Leaders are often quick to criticize and talk down to employees; this is often not productive and tells the employees that you do not care about them. Inspiring employees is always a great quality for a leader to possess.
The charactistic of competence is a really a given in the workplace, and is work to work for a leader to does not have this ability. Leaders should not be able to achieve the level of a leader without desire or passion for the...

...
UNIVERSITY OF JOS
FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION.PAPER PRESENTATION ON BUS 323
TOPIC: LINE BALANCING AND AUTOMATION.
PRESENTED TO MRS. RONKE.There is a need for every firm or industry to balance their production line or assembly line so that there is an even flow of production units form one work station to the next. In order to reduce cost of production it is necessary to avoid idleness of machines and with it, the labour, well-balanced lines improve labour work. The introduction of automation in industries or production firm brought so much more improvement in the accuracy, precision and quality in production. This paper presentation explains the question of line balancing and automation.
LINE BALANCING
Line balancing is assigning tasks among workers at each product line so that performance times are made as equal as possible.
Line-balancing strategy is to make production lines flexible enough to absorb external and internal irregularities, in other words the question of how cost of idleness can be reduce is the focus point. If every work station in a product layout equal amount of task time, no time will be idled. Therefore line balancing is a job equalizing task time among work stations.
Line balancing involves assigning tasks to workstations....

...Straight Line Equations and Inequalities
A: Linear Equations - Straight lines
Please remember that when you are drawing graphs you should always label your axes and that y is always shown on the vertical axis. A linear equation between two variables x and y can be represented by y = a + bx where “a” and “b” are any two constants. For example, suppose we wish to plot the straight line If x = -2, say, then y = 3 + 2(-2) = 3 - 4 = -1 If x= -2 -1 -1 1 0 3 1 5 2 7 As you can see, we have plotted the five points on the graph. They do indeed all lie on a straight line and we have joined them together to show the line. Of course, you could draw the line by just plotting any two points on it and then joining and extending those two points. y = 3 + 2x ..... and so on (see table below)
Then y =
y
x
The equation simply represents the relationship between two variables x and y. For example: suppose our basic salary is £4000 and we add commission to that at the rate of 5% of our total sales. Call y our total salary and call x our sales (both in £) then we could represent this relationship as y = 4000 + 0.05x (5% is five hundredths i.e. 0.05) Then, if we knew that total sales were 6000, we could work out total salary: y = 4000+0.05(6000) or £4300
For our next example, we will draw the equation y = 6 - x on a graph (using just two points): For y = 6 - x Put x = 1 then y = 6 - 1 = 5 Put x =...

...LINES AND PLANES IN SPACE
PLANE – is a surface such that if any two points on it are joined by a straight line, the line lies wholly on the surface.
POSTULATE 1. Through three points not on the same straight line, one and only one plane can be passed.
A plane is determined by any of the following conditions:
1. Three non-collinear points;
2. A line and a point not on the line;
3. Two intersecting lines; or
4. Two parallel lines.
POSTULATE 2. If two planes meet, they have at least two distinct points in common.
PARALLEL LINES- lines that lie on the same plane and cannot meet however far they are produced.
PARALLEL PLANES – planes which do not intersect however far they are produced.
FOOT OF A LINE - the point of intersection of a line and a plane or of a line and a second line.
NORMAL TO A PLANE – a line perpendicular to a plane.
The projection of a point on the plane is the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the point to the plane.
The projection of a line on the plane is the locus of the projection of all its points.
THEOREMS:
1. If two planes intersect, their intersection is a line.
2. Through one straight line an infinite number of planes may...

...a ball as close to the meter stick as possible and measure a) the height dropped and b) the resulting height bounces. Repeat this for three different heights dropped and records all data. Then you will make a graph of the data.
Make at least three more measurements for each of the previous three height dropped levels. Find the average height bounced for each level and record the data and the average values.
Make a new graph of the average height bounced for each level that the ball was dropped . Draw a straight line best fit that includes the origin by considering the general trend of the data points measurement data. Draw that straight line as close as possible to as many data points as you can so that you have about the number of data points on both sides of the straight line.
Compare how well both graph predicts the heights that the ball will bounce for height dropped that were not tried previously. Located an untried height dropped distance on the straight line then use the corresponding height bounced from the graph as a prediction.
Graphing
Feb. 1, 2011
TR
9:30-10:50
Shantia Stringfellow
Physical Science Survey...

...JIELIANG PHONE HOME CASE STUDY
PROBLEM STATEMENT
Jieliang (DL) is a line worker at Precision Electro-Tech’s Dongguan, China manufacturing plant. During a plant walk through, Marty Cole (OEM – Global Team) witnessed Jieliang being publicly disciplined in front of her fellow line workers for not following Total Quality Control (TQC) procedures and using her own method.
ANALYSIS
Precision Electro-Tech is a large contract manufacturer (CM) that produces products (i.e., cell phones) for another company or OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer). “In the case of complex assembly tasks, if those tasks can be broken down into simple unit manufacturing steps that can be completely specified, they can be sent to low-cost countries like China where unskilled labor can be trained to follow those steps in detail. This business concept is known as “labor arbitrage” and is the foundation of the global economy and outsourcing (Shih, Bernstein, Bilimoria, 2009).”
The above business model of CMs is a tried and true paradigm and is consistent with the lean principles of manufacturing. While this model is widely used, particularly in outsourcing operations; the key is that each step must be clearly defined, delineated, and rigidly followed in order to maximize productivity.
The advantage of the CM approach is that it allows OEMs to specify the exact steps in the manufacturing process; ostensibly, to ensure exact specifications and a high level of quality...