Lighting is an essential service in all the industries. The power consumption by the indusrtial lighting varies between 2% to 10% of the total power depending on the type of industry. Innovation and continuous improvement in the field of lighting, has given rise to tremendous energy saving opportunities in this area. The simplest and the most widely used form of controlling a lighting installation is "On-Off" switch. In the electrical lighting system in our community, especially in the various households and the street lighting system, it will be observed that lots of electrical power is being wasted as a result of negligence and ineffectiveness on the part of our local power authority (PHCN), State electricity board, parastatals in charge of electric power management, and various house occupants. It will be observed that large quantity of energy is wasted as a result of poor or manual switching technique of our lighting system in Nigeria. It is a common occurrence and often noticed that the public street lighting along our streets or roads are being left 'ON' throughout the day and night time as a result of negligence and ineffectiveness of the operators that manage the manual switching 'ON' and 'OFF' of the lighting system. Household occupants also tend to leave their lighting 'ON' throughout the day due to negligence and ignorance. Thereby leading to electrical power wastage and excessive loading of transformers particularly in the industrial areas where we have heavy industrial machinery running combined with public consumption in the day time. Having observed these problems being encountered, this project will be developed to bring about the automation of the switching of lighting system using light depending resistor (LDR). The project is an electronic switch that is controlled (turned on and off) by the amount of light shining on the LDR. When light strikes the LDR, the switch opens (turns off); when the LDR is in darkness, the switch closes (turns on).
Objectives of the system are:
This project aims at designing and executing the advanced development in embedded systems for energy saving of lights with light depending resistor (LDR). Nowadays, human has become too busy and he is unable to find time even to switch the lights wherever not necessary. This can be seen more effectively in the case of street lights. The present system is like, the street lights will be switched on in the evening before the sun sets and they are switched off the next day morning after there is sufficient light on the roads. But the actual timings for these street lights to be switched on are when there is absolute darkness. With this, the power will be wasted up to some extent. This project is to provide a better solution to minimize the electrical wastage in operating lightings.
The main consideration in the present field technologies are automation, power consumption, cost effectiveness, reliability, safety, and ease of use. These objectives will be met in the following ways:
Automation: This is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligent systems.
Power Saving: This is the main consideration forever as the sources of power (Thermal, Hydro etc.,) are getting diminished due to various reasons. The main aim of the project is automatic power saving system with LDR, this is to save the power. We want to save power automatically instead of doing it manually. This saved power can be used in some other cases.
Cost: By using noncritical, readily available hardware and electronic components.
Reliability: By using an extremely dependable solid-state active component, the triac, and printed circuit board construction techniques, a high degree of reliability will be obtained.
Safety: By fusing the ac line and completely enclosing the project in a metal or plastic enclosure, safe operation will be assured.
Ease of use: All the user need to operate the light-controlled switch is to...