Developmental Theory Key Proponent Stages/ Phases
Psychosexual Freud Oral Stage :
This occurs from birth to about 1 year. During this stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. As a result of the infant being entirely dependent upon caretakers, who are responsible for feeding the child, the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation. The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process, the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail biting.
This period occurs at about 18 months to 3 yrs of age. The focus of gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus. The child experiences pleasure from the elimination of faeces. According to Freud, this brings them into conflict with their parents. Random elimination (as demanded by the id) incurs parental displeasure, yet withholding elimination (as requested by the parents) is denying the demands of the id, which until this point has been the source of all motivation. The resolution of this conflict requires the development of the ego, and as such has important implications for behaviours later in life. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful, or destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is... [continues]
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